Need for Strategic Planning

Cooperatives May 24, 2012 Print Friendly and PDF

By Phil Kenkel, Vice Chair, Cooperatives CoP and Bill Fitzwater Cooperative Chair, Oklahoma State University,

In a recent national project, academic researchers, cooperative managers and members, USDA, agricultural foundations and other stakeholders collaborated to identify the critical issues facing agricultural cooperatives. A two-stage Delphi survey was conducted, followed by expert panel sessions in Washington, D.C. and Minneapolis, Minnesota. The material below summarizes some of the findings from the project.

Numerous studies over the years have identified regular and effective strategic planning as a critical activity for cooperative firms. This most recent research project was no exception. Almost 90 percent of the cooperative leaders ranked strategic planning as an extremely important or very important issue. All businesses, not just cooperatives, need strategic planning. Cooperatives face some unique drivers for strategic planning.

Most cooperatives were established for a very simple business proposition with a homogeneous set of members. As the cooperative matures, member characteristics and needs become much more heterogeneous. This creates a continuing need to define what the cooperative is and what it should do. Strategic planning allows the board to consider how the cooperative’s resources can best be focused and employed to meet evolving member needs.

A cooperative’s governance system also creates a need for strategic planning. Most successful cooperatives have a healthy level of turnover on the board. This creates new perspectives and new linkages with the customer owners. The downside is that new board members do not have the long-run perspective and institutional memory of the issues and decisions facing the cooperative. The planning process provides board members with the opportunity to educate themselves on the forces impacting their industry. Regular strategic planning generates planning documents and a shared vision that provides continuity in strategic direction even as the board composition evolves. 

Strategy remains an important topic for directors and managers. Clearly, cooperatives should recognize the unique nature of the cooperative as an extension of the member’s farming operation in strategy formation and implementation. Cooperatives face a wide range of pressing issues, including issues relating to finance, governance, communication and human resources. These issues are also interrelated with the strategic planning process.

Connect with us

  • Facebook


This is where you can find research-based information from America's land-grant universities enabled by



Feature Articles


Teaching Materials


  • Webinar Information
  • Upcoming Cooperatives Webinars
  • Archived Cooperatives Webinars


  • Rural Cooperatives magazine, Rural Development, Business and Cooperative Programs, USDA - This bimonthly magazine contains articles and news items relevant to agricultural and non-agricultural cooperatives. An archive provides access to past issues of the magazine from 1998 to 2011.
  • Directory of Farmer Cooperatives, Service Report 22, USDA Rural Development, October 2013 - This directory contains a list, by state, of almost 1,500 farmer-owned marketing, farm supply, service, fishery and bargaining cooperatives. The information includes the cooperative’s contact information, type of cooperative and products that they sell. An online directory is updated every month.


This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.