Research and Articles about Virtual Worlds and Education

May 19, 2015 Print Friendly and PDF



**The Journal of Virtual Worlds Research  is an online, open access peer-reviewed academic journal published since 2008. All past issues are available at so individual articles have not been listed here.


Adams, Wendy K., Sam Reid, Ron LeMaster, Sarah B. McKagan, et al. “A Study of Educational Simulations Part I - Engagement and Learning.” Journal of Interactive Learning Research 19.3 (20080700): 397–419. Print.

Adams, Wendy K., Sam Reid, Ron LeMaster, Sarah McKagan, et al. “A Study of Educational Simulations Part II – Interface Design.” Journal of Interactive Learning Research 19.4 (20081000): 551–577. Print.

Ahn, J. (2009). Analyzing learning games in second life. Computers in Education, 698-702.

Aurilio, S. (2008). Learning Stories of Second Life Residents: An Ethnography. World Conference on Educational Multimedia Hypermedia and Telecommunications (pp. 2317-2323). AACE.

Bell, D. (2009). Learning from Second Life. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 515-525. Wiley-Blackwell.

Bellotti, F., Berta, R., De Gloria, A., & Primavera, L. (2010). Supporting authors in the development of task-based learning in serious virtual worlds. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 86-107.

Bloomfield, R. (2008). Second Chance for Second Life. Wall Street Journal Eastern Edition, 111(1), 12-13. Retrieved from

Boellstorff, T. (2008). Coming of Age in Second Life. Imagine (pp. 3-31). Princeton University Press.

Buono, P., Cortese, T., Lionetti, F., Minoia, M., & Simeone, A. L. (2008). A Simulation of a Fire Accident in Second Life. In A. Spagnolli & L. Gamberini (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Presence (pp. 183-190). CLEUP, Padova, Italy.

Burn, A. (2009). Machinima, Second Life and the pedagogy of animation. Making new media Semiotics culture and digital literacies (pp. 133-153).

Canbek, N. G., Lominadze, T., & Manjgaladze, M. (2011). INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN ( ISD ): Theory and Practice in Second Life. Distance Education, (August), 9-22.

Chen, Chwen Jen, and Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan Ismail. “Guiding Exploration Through Three-Dimensional Virtual Environments: A Cognitive Load Reduction Approach.” Journal of Interactive Learning Research 19.4 (20081000): 579–596. Print.

Cheney, Amelia, and Robert L Sanders. Teaching and Learning in 3D Immersive Worlds Pedagogical Models and Constructivist Approaches. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.

Clark, J. S. (2009). Virtually Natural: Environmental Education in Second Life. MG 2009 Proceedings (pp. 1-11). Conference on Communication and the Environment. Retrieved from

Clark, J. S. “Environmental Education in Second Life.” SlideShare. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.

Clavering, R. S., & Nicols, A. R. (2007). Lessons Learned Implementing an Educational System in Second Life. Group (Vol. 2, pp. 19-22). ACM Press. Retrieved from

Cox, R. J., & Crowther, P. S. (2009). A Review of Linden Scripting Language and Its Role in Second Life. (M. Purvis & B. T. R. Savarimuthu, Eds.)ComputerMediated Social Networking, 5322(February 2008), 35-47. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Crisp, G., Hillier, M., & Joarder, S. (2010). Assessing students in Second Life with scripted chatbots. Proceedings of the ATN Assessment Conference 2010 Assessment Sustainability Diversity and Innovation Sydney Australia November 1819 (pp. 1-3). Retrieved from

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2010b). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 10-32.

De Pascale, M., Mulatto, S., & Prattichizzo, D. (2008). Bringing haptics to Second Life. Proceedings of the 2008 AmbiSys Workshop on Haptic User Interfaces in Ambient Media Systems (p. 6). Icst. doi:10.4108/ICST.AMBISYS2008.2823

Doherty, P., Scientist, S., Rothfarb, R., Barker, D., & Artist, S. (2006). Building an Interactive Science Museum in Second Life. Second Life Education Workshop, 2006, 19-24. The University of Paisley. Retrieved from

Drax, Bernhard. Virtual Worlds as Green Workplaces? 2009. Film. Retrieved from

Du, Y. (2011). A Measurement Model of Students’ Behavioral Intentions to Use . Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, (1), 41-53.

Duncan, Ishbel, Alan Miller, and Shangyi Jiang. “A Taxonomy of Virtual Worlds Usage in Education.” British Journal of Educational Technology n. pag. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.

Eckelman, M. J., Lifset, R. J., Yessios, O., & Panko, K. (2011). Teaching Industrial Ecology and Environmental Management in Second Life. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(11), 1273-1278.

Falloon, G. (2010). Using avatars and virtual environments in learning: What do they have to offer? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 108-122.

Gard, S., & McAuliffe, M. (2009). Real Design of a Virtual Landscape - Designing and Building a Landscape in Second Life. 2009 15th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, 73-79. Ieee. doi:10.1109/VSMM.2009.17

Girvan, C., & Savage, T. (2010). Identifying an appropriate pedagogy for virtual worlds: A Communal Constructivism case study. Computers & Education, 55(1), 342-349. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.01.020

Grimley, Mick et al. “Virtual Worlds for Science Learning.” Learning (2010): 263–265.

Gronstedt, A. (2008) Making Learning Fun and Social. ELearning. April/May 2008. Retrieved from, C. (2009). Second Life as Innovation. Public Services Quarterly, 5(4), 282-288.

Hai-Jew, Shalin. Virtual Immersive and 3d Learning Spaces Emerging Technologies and Trends. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.

Hai-Jew, Shalin, ed. Constructing Self-Discovery Learning Spaces Online. IGI Global, 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.

Hargis, J., Provost, A., & Stockton, P. (2008). A second life for distance learning. Online, V(April), 57-63.

Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2000). An instructional design framework for authentic learning environments. Educational Technology Research & Development, 48(3), 23-48. Springer Boston.

Harrison, D.  Real-Life Teaching in a Virtual World. Campus Technology. Retrieved from

Jarmon, L., Lim, K. Y. T., Carpenter, B. S., & Jensen, K. (2009). Pedagogy , Education and Innovation in 3-D Virtual Worlds ” April 2009. Innovation, 2(1), 23.

Jarmon, L., Sanchez, J. (2009). The Educators Coop: A Model for Collaboration and LSI Communication Research in the Virtual World. The Electronic Journal of Communication. 19 (1) Retrieved from

Jarmon, L., Traphagan, T., & Mayrath, M. (2008). Understanding project-based learning in Second Life with a pedagogy, training, and assessment trio. Educational Media International, 45(3), 157-176. Routledge.

Jarmon, L., Traphagan, T., Mayrath, M., & Trivedi, A. (2009). Virtual world teaching, experiential learning, and assessment: An interdisciplinary communication course in Second Life. Computers & Education, 53(1), 169-182. Elsevier Ltd.

Kenan Institute for Ethics. (2011) Second Life for Scholars: Digital humanities exploring virtual worlds. Duke University. Retrieved from

Kumar, S., Chhugani, J., Kim, C. K. C., Kim, D. K. D., Nguyen, A., Dubey, P., Bienia, C., et al. (2008). Second Life and the New Generation of Virtual Worlds. Computer (Vol. 41, pp. 46-53). IEEE Computer Society.

La, C.A., & Michiardi, P. (2008). Characterizing User Mobility in Second Life. Proceedings of the first workshop on Online social networks WOSP 08, 79. ACM Press. Retrieved from

Liu, C., Livingstone, D., & Kemp, J. (2006). Second Life Learning Community: A peer-based approach to involving more faculty members in Second Life. In D. Livingstone & J. Kemp (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second Life Education Workshop at the Second Life Community Convention San Francisco (Vol. 2006, pp. 6-10). The University of Paisley. Retrieved from

Maher, and M. Corbit. “Creating Genetic Applications for Informal Science Learning in Multi-user Virtual Environments or Virtual Worlds.” Proceedings Tenth IEEE International Workshop on Enabling Technologies Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises WET ICE 2001 (2001): 291–298.

Malone, T. W. (1980). What makes things fun to learn? heuristics for designing instructional computer games. In P. Lehot, L. Loop, & G. W. Gorsline (Eds.), Challenge (Vol. 162, pp. 162-169). ACM.

Mancuso, D. S., Chlup, D. T., & McWhorter, R. R. (2011). A Study of Adult Learning in a Virtual World. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 681-699.

Meggs, S. M., Greer, A. G., & Collins, S. (2011). Integrating Second Life as a Pedagogical Tool for Interactive Instruction. Learning, 7(3), 380-392.

Mennecke, B., Roche, E. M., Bray, D. A., Konsynski, B., Lester, J., Rowe, M., & Townsend, A. M. (2007). Second Life and Other Virtual Worlds: A Roadmap for Research. Information Systems Journal (Vol. 22, pp. 1-5). SSRN. Retrieved from

Meyers, Eric M. “Virtual Worlds, Real Learning.” School Library Monthly 26.3 (2009): 50–52. Print.

Minocha, S., & Reeves, A. (2009). Designing learning activities in Second Life for student engagement. Journal of CyberTherapy Rehabilitation, 1(3), 227-239. Retrieved from

Minocha, S., & Reeves, A. (2010). Design of learning spaces in 3D virtual worlds: an empirical investigation of Second Life. Learning Media And Technology, 35(2), 111-137. Routledge. Retrieved from

Molka-Danielsen, J., & Deutschmann, M. (2009). Learning and Teaching in the Virtual World of Second life. (J. Molka-Danielsen & M. Deutschmann, Eds.)International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments (Vol. 1, p. 194, [16]). Tapir Akademisk Forlag.

Moschini, E. (2010). The Second Life Researcher Toolkit – An Exploration of Inworld Tools, Methods and Approaches for Researching Educational Projects in Second Life. In A. Peachey, J. Gillen, D. Livingstone, & S. Smith-Robbins (Eds.), Researching Learning in Virtual Worlds (pp. 31-51). Springer London.

Ondrejka, C. (2004). A Piece of Place: Modeling the Digital on the Real in Second Life. Social Science Research Network.

O’Connor, E. A. (2009). Instructional and Design Elements that Support Effective Use of Virtual Worlds: What Graduate Student Work Reveals about Second Life. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 38(2), 213-234.

Pereira, A., Vega, K., Raposo, A., Fuks, H., David, V., & Filippo, D. (2009). Immersive Collaborative Storytelling: Time2Play in Second Life. Sistemas Colaborativos SBSC 2009 Simposio Brasileiro de (pp. 99-105).

Reeves, A. J., & Minocha, S. (2011). Relating pedagogical and learning space designs in Second Life. Teaching and Learning in 3D Immersive Worlds (pp. 1-37). IGI Global. Retrieved from

Ritzema, T., & Harris, B. (2008). The use of Second Life for distance education. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, 23(6), 110-116. Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges. Retrieved from

Smith-Robbins, Sarah. : Incommensurate Worlds: Epistemic Rhetoric and Faceted Classification of Communication Mechanics in Virtual Worlds. Dissertation. Retrieved 13 Mar 2012

Sanchez, J. (2009a). Barriers to Student Learning in Second Life. Library Technology Reports, 45(2), 29-34. American Library Association. Retrieved from

Sanchez, J. (2009b). Pedagogical Applications of Second Life. Library Technology Reports, 45(2), 21-28. Retrieved from

Sanchez, J. (2009c). A social history of Second Life. Library Technology Reports, 45(2), 9-13. Retrieved from

Sanders, Robert, and Shanna Melton. “Avatars in Action: Developing a Pedagogy for Teaching in a Virtual World.” Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2009 2009.1 (20090302): 1552–1554. Print.

Scopes, L. J. M. (2009). Learning archetypes as tools of Cybergogy for a 3D educational landscape: a structure for eTeaching in Second Life. Social Sciences. University of Southampton. Retrieved from

Squires, Joshua, and Fawzi Benmessaoud. “EXPLORING VIRTUAL WORLDS as a METHOD FOR DELIVERING ONLINE EDUCATION.” World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2008 2008.1 (20080630): 5444–5448. Print.

Steinkuehler, Constance, and Kurt Squire. “Virtual Worlds and Learning.” On the Horizon 17.1 (2009): 8–11.

Stoyanchev, S. (2010). Second Life as a research platform. IEEE SLTC Newsletter. Retrieved from

Strobel, Johannes, and Conrad Hawkins. “An Exploration of Design Phenomena in Second Life.” World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2009 2009.1 (20091026): 3702–3709. Print.

Sullivan, B. Z., Baum, J., Dyer, L., & Braman, J. (2009). Immersive Learning Objects for E-Learning and Collaboration through Second Life. ieee Learning Technology Newsletter, 11, 20-22. Retrieved from

Tashner, J., Bronack, S., 3-D Web-Based Worlds for Instruction. Appalachian State University. Retrieved from

Toro-Troconis, M., Mellström, U., Partridge, M., & Barrett, M. (2008). An architectural model for the design of game-based learning activities for virtual patients in Second Life. European Conference on GameBased Learning.

Varvello, M., Ferrari, S., Biersack, E., & Diot, C. (2011). Exploring Second Life. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 19(1), 80-91. IEEE Press.

Varvello, M., Picconi, F., Diot, C., & Biersack, E. (2008). Is there life in Second Life? Proceedings of the 2008 ACM CoNEXT Conference on CONEXT 08, (April), 1-12. ACM Press. doi:10.1145/1544012.1544013

Wagner, C., & Ip, R. K. F. (1992). Action Learning with Second Life – A Pilot Study. Journal of Information Systems, 20(2), 249-259. Journal of Information Systems Education (JISE). c/o Al Harris, JISE Editor, Department of Computer Information Systems, Walker College of Business, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608. Tel: 828-262-6180; Fax: 828-262-6190; e-mail: jise@ appstat. Retrieved from

Wang, B. S.-kwei, & Hsu, H.-yin. (2009). Using the ADDIE Model to Design Second Life Activities for Online Learners. (C. J. Bonk, M. M. Lee, & T. Reynolds, Eds.)TechTrends, 53(6), 76-81. AACE.

Wang, Y., & Braman, J. (2009). Extending the Classroom through Second Life. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 235-247. Journal of Information Systems Education (JISE). c/o Al Harris, JISE Editor, Department of Computer Information Systems, Walker College of Business, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608. Tel: 828-262-6180; Fax: 828-262-6190; e-mail: jise@ appstat. Retrieved from

Warren, S. J., & Wakefield, J. S. (2011). INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FRAMEWORKS FOR SECOND LIFE VIRTUAL LEARNING. In R. Hinrichs & C. Wankel (Eds.), Transforming Virtual Worlds Learning Cutting Edge Technologies in Higher Education (Vol. 4, pp. 115-163). Emerald Group Publisher. doi:10.1108/S2044-9968(2011)0000004010

Wilde, Jane, In SL/Esme Qunhua . “Teaching and Learning in Virtual Words: Complexity, Cognitive Load and MOOCs.” Teaching and Learning in Virtual Words 3 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.

Winnington, K. (2011) Why Virtual Worlds (like Second Life) Have More Value Than Twitter & Facebook. Sandcastle Studios. Retrieved from

Yee, Nick. The  Proteus Effect: Behavioral Modification Transformations of Digital Self-Representations. Dissertation. Stanford University, 2007. Retrieved from

Zijdemans Boudreau, Anita et al. “Immersive Virtual Worlds in Educational Practice: Introducing Educators to Second Life.” World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate,

This is another bibliography focused on virtual words research posted by an unknown author. A few resources are duplicative of the list above.



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This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.