Vaccinium, section Cyanococcus; the genus includes about 400 species
- Highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.), distributed from Michigan east to Nova Scotia.
- Southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid), adapted to regions with warm winters such as the southeastern United States.
- Lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium Ait.), native to the northeastern United States and parts of Canada.
- Rabbiteye blueberry (V. ashei Reade), extends throughout the southeastern United States.
Bush height ranges
- 5 cm to 20 cm for lowbush,
- 4 m for southern highbush, and
- 6 m for rabbiteye blueberry.
All commercial species of blueberries are decidious woody perennials, with simple leaves arranged alternately on the stem.
- Lowbush - narrow and oval-shaped,
- Highbush and southern highbush - ovate shape, and
- Rabbiteye – spatula-shaped to inversely lance-shaped.
- Very fine, fibrous, lack root hairs in highbush and rabbiteye blueberries, and
- Adventititous, originating from rhizomes in lowbush.
- Flower buds contain a flowering stalk of 8-16 flowers.
- Individual flowers within the bud have sepals, petals, stamens and pistils.
- Individual flowers consist of a four to five-lobed white, whitish-yellow, or whitish pink corolla.
- Highbush blueberry corollas are cylindrical and urn shaped.
- Rabbiteye corollas are usually urn shaped and narrower than highbush flower.
- The lowbush flower is typically cylindrical and smaller than the corolla of highbush and rabbiteye flowers.
- The pistil consists of an ovary and a style with a small stigma that extends near to or beyond the corolla opening.
- Ten stamens, shorter than the style, arise from the base of the corolla.
- Pollen is shed through pores at the end of each anther.
- The berry consists of an ovary with up to 100 or more ovules.
- Ovules become berry seeds upon pollination and fertilization.
- Ripe fruits are blue-black or dark purple with a surface wax.
Rebecca L. Darnell, 2006. Blueberry Botany/Environmental Physiology. In: N. F. Childers and P. M. Lyrene (ed.), Blueberries for Growers, Gardeners, Promoters. E.O. Painter Printing Company, Inc., DeLeon Springs, FL., pp. 5-6.