Apple Rootstock Info: M.4

Apples January 05, 2015 Print Friendly and PDF


Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock M.4

Selected in 1912 from unknown parents at the East Malling Research Station in Maidstone, Kent, England. M.4 is slightly dwarfing and produces a tree about 75-80% standard size. It is considered fairly precocious, and trees tend to lean and may require trunk support. M.4 is resistant to collar rot. In an Indian rootstock trial trees on M.4, MM.106, and MM.111 were all about the same size. Cumulative yield was greater than trees on MM.111, similar to trees on MM.106, but less than trees on M.7. M.4 was included in the 1984 NC-140 rootstock trial replicated at 31 locations in North America. After 10 years, trees on M.4 survived well. Since trees were larger than trees on M.7 EMLA, M.4 probably produces at tree similar in size to MM.111 (about 90% standard size).Compared to M.7 EMLA, trees on M.4 had high cumulative yield, but lower yield efficiency.

Synonyms Malling 4, Malling IV, Dutch Doucin, Holstein Doucin
Origin Unknown
Availability N/A
Tree Size 75-80%
Precocity Early
Winter Hardiness Moderate
Suckering Moderate
Tree Support Needed Yes
Where tested within NC-140 or other research plantings AR, BC, CA, CO, IA, IL, IN, MA, MI, MN, NC, NY, OH, OR, PA, UT, VA, WA, WI


Connect with us

  • Facebook


This is where you can find research-based information from America's land-grant universities enabled by



Apple Rootstocks

  • All about understanding and choosing the right rootstock

Apple Cultivars

  • Characteristics, descriptions, and how to choose the best to grow and eat

Establishing an Apple Orchard

  • Buying and planting trees

Managing Apple Trees and Orchards

  • Insects, diseases, wildlife and other challenges

Propagating Apple Rootstocks and Trees

  • Grafting, budding, tissue culture, and all about how rootstocks are developed

Regional Resources

  • Links to apple information specific to your area


This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.