Apple Rootstock Info: G.16

Apples January 05, 2015 Print Friendly and PDF


Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock G.16

Resulted from a cross between Ottawa 3 and Malus floribunda and introduced by the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY.  G.16 is a dwarfing rootstock and produces a tree similar in size to M.9. It is very precocious and has productivity similar to M.9, and requires full tree support. It is highly resistant to fire blight, quite resistant to crown and root rots, but susceptible to woolly apple aphid. G.16 is hypersensitive to at least one latent virus, so only virus free budwood should be used. The oldest trials were established in New York in 1998, so G.16 has not been widely evaluated. G.16 is being evaluated in the 2003 NC-140 rootstock trial at 12 locations. After five years, tree survival has been similar to M.9, and it produces a tree similar in size to M.9 and does not produce many burr knots or root suckers. 

Synonyms Geneva 16
Origin Ottawa 3 X Malus floribunda
Availability Trial
Tree Size 45-50%
Precocity Very early
Winter Hardiness Hardy
Suckering Very little
Tree Support Needed Yes
Where tested within NC-140 or other research plantings AR, BC, CA, GA, IA,KY, ME, NY, PA, UT, VA, WI


G.16 Tree G.16 Typical rootstock breakage
G.16 Tree G 16 rootstock typical
Image used by permission Image used by permission


G.16 Fruit G.16 Fruit cluster
G.16 Apple Measure G.16 Tree with Fruit
Image used by permission Image used by permission


'Golden Delicious' on G.16 'Cameo' on G.16
Golden G.16 1-G.16
Image by Robert Crassweller, Penn State University Image by Jon Clements, University of Massachusetts


'Cameo' on G.16 Third-leaf Cameo on G.16. The rootstock shows the typical bark "cracking" of G.16.
Cameo-G.16 rootstock IMG_0706
Image by Jon Clements, University of Massachusetts Image by Wes Autio, University of Massachusetts


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This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.