Forest ecosystems are made up of dozens of species and life forms, with sometimes complex patterns of vertical and horizontal structure. Across a large landscape, forest ecosystems are managed in a variety of ways and have many levels of human activity. Along a rough gradient from least intensive to most intensive human activity, forests may be characterized as wilderness, managed forests, wildland-urban interface, and urban forests. Each of these forest types is described in further detail on subsequent pages.
Example of Different Forest Management Types from the Pacific Northwest. (Top) Salmon Huckleberry Wilderness Area in Mt. Hood National Fores. (Second from Top) The managed forest, Tillamook State Forest in Oregon. (Second from Bottom) The western portion of Washington County in Oregon state showing the wildland-urban interface. (Bottom)Forest Park found in the City of Portland, Oregon.
Photographs: Creative Commons 2.0 Flickr, BikePortland,org, Creative Commons 2.0 Flickr, pauljess999, Creative Commons 2.0 Flickr, Matt Picio, Digital Millenium Copyright Google Earth.