Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD)

Agricultural Disaster Preparedness and Recovery November 18, 2015 Print Friendly and PDF

group of pigs

What Is Swine Vesicular Disease and Why Should I Care?

Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs that is clinically indistinguishable from Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). The virus is similar to a human enterovirus and is shed through feces. Unlike FMD, the lesions/vesicles of SVD are mild and only affect pigs and morbidity rates are much lower than FMD. 

SVD is contracted through consumption of contaminated food scraps fed to pigs. Once a pig is infected, the virus spreads rapidly through a herd through bodily secretions, feces, and contaminated equipment and clothing.

Where Is Swine Vesicular Disease Found?

Asia and parts of Europe. The United States and Canada are considered free of the disease.

Can Swine Vesicular Disease Affect People?

Although there have been isolated incidents of laboratory workers' becoming infected with the virus, SVD poses little threat to public health.

What Are Signs Of Swine Vesicular Disease?

  • Lesions/vesicles around the mouth and snout
  • Lesions/vesicles of the hoof/foot junction (coronary band)
  • Fever
  • Excessive salivation
  • Unsteady gait

Can Swine Vesicular Disease Be Treated?

There is no specific treatment for SVD. Pigs usually recover without incident after 2 to 3 weeks. Any pig suspected of having SVD should be reported to the State Veterinarians or USDA Area Veterinarian in Charge immediately.

How Can Swine Vesicular Disease Be Prevented?

SVD can be prevented from entering the United States by following basic farm biosecurity procedures including feeding properly processed food scraps (boiled for 30 minutes to kill bacteria and viruses) to pigs, and quarantining pigs of unknown health status.

There is no vaccine for SVD.

Where Can I Find Additional Information?

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This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.