Biodesign Farm Disease Management Tables

Organic Agriculture August 28, 2017 Print Friendly and PDF

eOrganic authors:

Helen Atthowe, Biodesign Farm

Alex Stone, Oregon State University

This article is part of the Biodesign Farm Organic System Description

Table 1. Disease Management System

Strategies and tools Implementation details
I. System design  
Optimize landscape and field design Fields were designed with aspect and airflow in mind. 
Plant resistant/resilient germplasm When possible, varieties were selected for disease resistance.
Design for spatial/temporal rotation The 3-year crop rotation was based on family (Solanaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae)
II. Soil building for disease suppression  
Optimize quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) Organic residues varied in carbon content and ease of decomposition. SOM increased from an average of 3.5 to 5.7% in Old field and from 3.3 to 5.2% in New Field.
Reduce tillage Minimum tillage was practiced in the spring in Old field and only in crop rows in New field.
Balance cations Biodesign's target was 65–70% Ca, 15–20% Mg, and 3–5% K. In Old field, ending ratios were: 70% Ca, 18.7% Mg, and 5.7% K. In New field, they were 77.1% Ca, 17.8% Mg, and 5.1% K.
Match nitrogen supply with crop need Some organic residues had higher carbon:nitrogen ratio and thus supplied nitrogen slowly. 
III. Cultural strategies  
Irrigate to minimize foliar/fruit wetting Drip irrigation was managed to avoid foliar and fruit wetting in Old field. Both drip and sprinkler irrigation were used in New field.
Manage groundcover The between-row living mulch was mowed selectively to maximize airflow and reduce disease risk.
Maximize airflow Mowed living mulch row middles; planted crops on raised beds; staked tomatoes and peppers. 
Reduce rain/irrigation water splashing  Black plastic mulch on tomato, pepper, and eggplant crops to reduce splashing of pathogen spores with rain/irrigation water.
IV. Supplemental inputs  
Apply materials for disease management Disease pressure was never very great (likely due to a dry climate), so no pesticides were applied for disease management. In the early 1990s, compost tea (made with Biodesign's sheep and/or cattle manure compost) was applied to tomato foliage in the spring (one to three applications) in an effort to manage bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato). A Solo backpack sprayer was used to apply approximately 3 gal/300-foot row. This practice was abandoned by the late 1990s as it did not seem to be effective.
V. Diagnosis, monitoring, recordkeeping, and decision making   
Scout crops/monitor for diseases Scouting for diseases occurred weekly or twice per month.
Keep records Harvest evaluations included disease incidence/severity.
Use monitoring data to inform management decisions Bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) was a problem in the 1990s, but monitoring records/history helped Biodesign modify the system to minimize disease risk.

Table 2. Old Field Rotation: Crops and Amendments by Row 1994-2005¹ 

Row 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  Cattle manure compost 12 tons/acre Cattle manure compost 10 tons/acre Cattle manure compost 7 tons/acre Cattle manure compost
5 tons/acre
Sheep and cattle manure compost 5 tons/acre Sheep manure compost 2-4 tons/acre Sheep manure compost 2 tons/acre Sheep manure compost 2 tons/acre Sheep manure compost 2 tons/acre No compost No compost No compost
  White clover LM

White clover + snail medic LM

White clover + snail medic LM White clover + snail medic LM White clover + snail medic LM White clover + parabinga medic LM Alsike clover LM Alsike clover + annual ryegrass LM Alsike clover + annual ryegrass LM Red clover LM Alsike clover LM Red clover + yellow sweet clover LM
1 Buckwheat Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Red clover Broccoli Pepper
2 Buckwheat Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Red clover Broccoli Pepper
3 Buckwheat Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Red clover Broccoli Pepper
4 Buckwheat Lettuce Tomato Bean/
Cucumber
Pepper Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Red clover Eggplant Red clover
5 Buckwheat Flowers Tomato Lettuce Pepper Flowers Tomato Broccoli Pepper Red clover Tomato Red clover
6 Buckwheat Flowers Tomato Lettuce Eggplant Flowers Tomato Pea/Bean Tomato Brussels sprouts Tomato Red clover
7 Buckwheat Flowers Eggplant Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Eggplant Lettuce Tomato Brussels sprouts Tomato Red clover
8 Buckwheat Flowers Pepper Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Lettuce Tomato Cabbage Pepper Red clover
9 Buckwheat Broccoli Pepper Flowers Tomato Broccoli Pepper Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Pepper Red clover
10 Buckwheat Broccoli Pepper Flowers Tomato Broccoli Pepper Flowers Tomato Broccoli Pepper Brussels sprouts
11 Tomato Broccoli Pepper Eggplant Tomato Broccoli Pepper Eggplant Tomato Red clover Squash Brussels sprouts
12 Tomato Broccoli Pepper Pepper Tomato Eggplant Pepper Tomato Broccoli Red clover Lettuce Tomato
13 Tomato Broccoli Broccoli Pepper Flowers Tomato Broccoli Tomato Broccoli Red clover Alsike clover Tomato
14 Tomato Eggplant Broccoli Pepper Flowers Tomato Broccoli Tomato Broccoli Red clover Alsike clover Tomato
15 Tomato Tomato Broccoli Pepper Broccoli Tomato Broccoli Tomato Broccoli Red clover Alsike clover Tomato
16 Tomato Tomato Broccoli Flowers Broccoli Tomato Broccoli Tomato Broccoli Red clover Alsike clover Broccoli
17 Tomato Tomato Broccoli Flowers Broccoli Tomato Broccoli Tomato Eggplant Squash Alsike clover Broccoli
18 Tomato Tomato Lettuce Tomato Broccoli Tomato Lettuce Pepper Pea/Bean Pepper Alsike clover Broccoli
19 White clover Tomato Lettuce Tomato Bean/ Potato Pepper Lettuce Pepper Carrot/ Lettuce Pepper Alsike clover Broccoli
20 White clover Tomato Lettuce Tomato Squash Pepper Lettuce Pepper Flowers Pepper Cabbage Eggplant
21 White clover Pepper Lettuce Tomato Lettuce Pepper Lettuce Pepper Alsike lover Pepper Brussels sprouts Mixed vegetables
22 White clover Pepper Flowers Tomato Lettuce Pepper Flowers Pepper Alsike clover Eggplant Brussels sprouts Yellow sweet clover
23 White clover Pepper Flowers Tomato Lettuce Pepper Flowers Alsike clover Alsike clover Tomato Alsike clover Yellow sweet clover
24 White clover Pepper White clover Tomato Lettuce White clover Alsike clover Alsike clover Alsike clover Tomato Alsike clover Yellow sweet clover
25 White clover Pepper White clover Buckwheat White clover White clover Alsike clover Alsike clover Alsike clover Tomato Alsike clover Yellow sweet clover

¹LM=Living Mulch

Table 3. New Field Rotation: Crops and Amendments by Row 1993-2010¹

Row 1993-2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  No amendments  No amendments Sheep manure compost (4 tons/acre); concentrated application in crop rows.  Sheep manure compost (2 tons/acre); concentrated application in crop rows. + gypsum in crop row (100 lb/4-ft x 600-ft row)    No compost.  Alfalfa meal in crop row (50 lb/4-ft x 600-ft row)        No compost.  Alfalfa meal in crop row (50 lb/4-ft x 600-ft row)  No compost.                  Alfalfa meal in crop row (50 lb/4-ft x 600-ft row)
  No amendments Red clover LM Red clover LM Red clover LM  Red clover LM Red clover LM Red clover LM
1 Pasture Red clover Broccoli Pepper Greens Red clover/ Smooth brome Pepper
2 Pasture Red clover Broccoli Pepper Squash Red clover/ Smooth brome Pepper
3 Pasture Red clover Cabbage Pepper Cucumber Red clover/ Smooth brome Pepper
4 Pasture Red clover Brussels sprout Tomato Mixed brassicas Red clover/ Smooth brome Tomato
5 Pasture Red clover Brussels sprout Tomato Mixed brassicas Red clover/ Smooth brome Tomato
6 Pasture Red clover Tomato Squash Late greens Red clover/ Smooth brome Squash
7 Pasture Red clover Tomato Broccoli Bean Red clover/ Smooth brome Brussels sprout
8 Pasture Red clover Tomato Broccoli Carrot Red clover/ Smooth brome Brussels sprout
9 Pasture Red clover Pepper Cabbage Greens Red clover/ Smooth brome Broccoli
10 Pasture Red clover Pepper Onion/Mixed greens Bean Red clover/ Smooth brome Cabbage
11 Pasture Pasture Pepper Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture
12 Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture
13 Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture
14 Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture Pasture
15 Pasture Red clover Onion Brussels sprout Tomato Potato/Broccoli  Onion/Mixed greens
16 Pasture Red clover Mixed greens Brussels sprout Tomato Brussels sprout Squash
17 Pasture Red clover Squash Potato Tomato Brussels sprout Red clover/ Smooth brome
18 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Pepper Broccoli Red clover/ Smooth brome
19 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Pepper Mixed vegetables Red clover/ Smooth brome
20 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Broccoli Pepper Red clover/ Smooth brome
21 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Cabbage Pepper Red clover/ Smooth brome
22 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Broccoli Pepper Red clover/ Smooth brome
23 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Brussels sprout Tomato Red clover/ Smooth brome
24 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Brussels sprout Tomato Red clover/ Smooth brome
25 Pasture Red clover Red clover Red clover Red clover Eggplant/Tomato Red clover/ Smooth brome

¹LM=Living Mulch

Table 4. Disease Specific Strategies

Disease Disease Trends¹ Practices² Pesticides
Tomato bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato)

Crop: tomato
DOWN

Practice 3-year crop rotation by crop family (Solanaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae).                     

Raised beds and staked tomatoes/peppers to maximize airflow and black plastic mulch under tomatoes/peppers to decrease rain/irrigation splashing of spores onto fruit and foliage.

None
Compost tea made with Biodesign's sheep and/or cattle manure compost was applied to foliage in the early 1990s. This practice was abandoned in the late 1990s as it did not seem effective.
Cucumber mosaic virus   (Bromoviridae:Cucumovirus)  

Crop: pepper
DOWN

Mow the between-row living mulch to maximize airflow and reduce leaf wetness.

Add higher carbon/lower nitrogen soil amendments  to build high-organic-matter soils with a diverse and healthy soil microbial community.

Use drip irrigation and management to avoid foliar and fruit wetting.

Manage system to suppress aphids (as they are the vector for CMV).

None

¹Supporting data is from farmer communication and crop monitoring records.
²See Table 1.

This article is part of the Biodesign Farm Organic Systems Description.

Table of Contents:

 

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

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This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.