Recent Publications About Biochar

Farm Energy April 29, 2015 Print Friendly and PDF

 

There is a lot of interest in biochar as a soil amendment and for its potential role in sequestering carbon to ameliorate the effects of climate change. CenUSA is evaluating biochar impacts on farm and garden crops production. Research is active and ongoing, and this list of recommended readings provides links to publications about different aspects of biochar production and use. 

 

Please note that most of these links go to abstracts  provided by professional journals; many of the full articles are only available to subscribers, or for a fee. You may be able to access these publications at your university or college library.
 

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Contents

The Impact of Biochar on Plants
The Impact of Biochar on Soils 
Biochar Manufacturing 
Biochar Properties
Biochar's Role in Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change
Research Reviews and State of the Knowledge
The Economics of Biochar 
Biomass Conversion   

The Impact of Biochar on Plants

Biederman, Lori A.; Harpole, W. Stanley. 2013. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta-analysis. Global Change in Biology Bioenergy 5: 202-214. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcbb.12037/abstract

Brockhoff, S.R., Christians, N.E., Killorn, R.J., Horton, R., Davis, D.D., 2010. Physical and Mineral-Nutrition Properties of Sand-Based Turfgrass Root Zones Amended with Biochar. Agron. J. 102, 1627-1631. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/abstracts/102/6/1627?access=0&view=pdf

Master Gardener Biochar Trials - St. Paul, MN campus. Photo: J. Weisenhorn.
Busch, Daniela, Claudia Kammann, Ludger Grünhage and Christoph Müller. 2012.
Simple Biotoxicity Tests for Evaluation of Carbonaceous Soil Additives: Establishment and Reproducibility of Four Test Procedures. J. Environmental Quality 41:1023-1032. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1023

Buss, Wolfram, Claudia Kammann and Hans-Werner Koyro. 2012. Biochar Reduces Copper Toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in a Sandy Soil. J. Environmental Quality 41:1157-1165. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1157

Crane-Droesch, A., Abiven, S., Jeffery, S., Torn, M.S., 2013. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis. Environmental Research Letters 8, 044049. http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/4/044049

Gajić, Ana and Heinz-Josef Koch. 2012. Sugar Beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) Growth Reduction Caused by Hydrochar Is Related to Nitrogen Supply. J. Environmental Quality 41:1067-1075. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1067

Glaser, Bruno and Jago Jonathan Birk. 2012. State of the scientific knowledge on properties and genesis of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazonia (terra preta de Indio). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 82: 39-51. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001670371100144X

Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., Zech, W., 2001. The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften 88, 37-41. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s001140000193

Jeffery, S., F. G. A. Verheijen, M. van der Velde, and A.C. Bastos. 2011. A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 144: 175-187. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880911003197

Kirwan, R., 1793. What are the manures most advantageously applicable to the various sorts of soils, and what are the causes of their beneficial effect in each particular instance? The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 5, 129-198. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30078693

Laird, David A., Natalia P. Rogovska, Manuel Garcia-Perez, Harold P. Collins, Jason D. Streubel, Matthew Smith, R. 2011. Pyrolysis and Biochar – Opportunities for Distributed Production and Soil Quality Enhancement.  In: Ross Braun, Douglas L. Karlen, and Dewayne Johnson (editors) Sustainable Alternative Fuel Feedstock Opportunities, Challenges and Roadmaps for Six U.S. Regions. Proceedings of the Sustainable Feedstocks for Advanced Biofuel Workshop. SWCS publisher. http://www.swcs.org/documents/resources/Chapter_16__Laird__Pyrolysis_and_Bi_96E09F2679C2B.pdf

Lentz, R. D. and J. A. Ippolito. 2012. Biochar and Manure Affect Calcareous Soil and Corn Silage Nutrient Concentrations and Uptake. J. Environmental Quality 41:1033-1043. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1033

Ogawa, M., Okimori, Y., 2010. Pioneering works in biochar research, Japan. Soil Res. 48, 489-500. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=SR10006.pdf

Rogovska, N., Laird D., Cruse R. M., Trabue S., and Heaton E. 2012. Germination Tests for Assessing Biochar Quality. J. Environmental Quality 41: 1014-1022. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1014

Schnell, Ronnie W., Donald M. Vietor, Tony L. Provin, Clyde L. Munster and Sergio Capareda.2012. Capacity of Biochar Application to Maintain Energy Crop Productivity: Soil Chemistry, Sorghum Growth, and Runoff Water Quality Effects. J. Environmental Quality 41:1044-1051. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1044

Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Novak, J.M., Archer, D.W., Ippolito, J.A., Collins, H.P., Boateng, A.A., Lima, I.M., Lamb, M.C., McAloon, A.J., Lentz, R.D., Nichols, K.A., 2012. Biochar:  A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality 41, 973-989. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/973

Stavi, Ilan and Rattan Lal. 2013. Agroforestry and biochar to offset climate change: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33: 81-96. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13593-012-0081-1

Tryon, E.H., 1948. Effect of charcoal on certain physical, chemical, and biological properties of forest soils. Ecol. Monogr 18, 81-115.ftp://ftp.dpvta.uniud.it/peressotti/Biochar/20 centries/US-Tryon1948-Effect of charcoal on certain physical, chemical, and biological properties of forest soils.pdf
 

The Impact of Biochar on Soils

Augustenborg, Cara A., Simone Hepp, Claudia Kammann, David Hagan, Olaf Schmidt and Christoph Müller. 2012. Biochar and Earthworm Effects on Soil Nitrous Oxide and Carbon Dioxide Emissions. J. Environmental Quality 41:1203-1209. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1203

Basso, A. S., Miguez, F. E., Laird, D. A., Horton, R., & Westgate, M. (2013). Assessing potential of biochar for increasing water-holding capacity of sandy soils. GCB Bioenergy, 5(2), 132-143.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcbb.12026/full

Biederman, Lori A.; Harpole, W. Stanley. 2013. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta-analysis. Global Change in Biology Bioenergy 5: 202-214. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcbb.12037/abstract

Brewer, Catherine E., Yan-Yan Hu, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr, Thomas E. Loynachan, David A. Laird and Robert C. Brown. 2012. Extent of Pyrolysis Impacts on Fast Pyrolysis Biochar Properties. J. Environmental Quality 41:1115-1122. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1115

Brockhoff, S.R., Christians, N.E., Killorn, R.J., Horton, R., Davis, D.D., 2010. Physical and Mineral-Nutrition Properties of Sand-Based Turfgrass Root Zones Amended with Biochar. Agron. J. 102, 1627-1631. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/abstracts/102/6/1627?access=0&view=pdf

Buss, Wolfram, Claudia Kammann and Hans-Werner Koyro. 2012. Biochar Reduces Copper Toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in a Sandy Soil. J. Environmental Quality 41:1157-1165. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1157

Choppala, G. K., N.S. Bolan, M. Megharaj, Z. Chen and R. Naidu. 2012. The Influence of Biochar and Black Carbon on Reduction and Bioavailability of Chromate in Soils. J. Environmental Quality 41:1175-1184. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1175

Crane-Droesch, A., Abiven, S., Jeffery, S., Torn, M.S., 2013. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis. Environmental Research Letters 8, 044049. http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/4/044049

Gajić, Ana and Heinz-Josef Koch. 2012. Sugar Beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) Growth Reduction Caused by Hydrochar Is Related to Nitrogen Supply. J. Environmental Quality 41:1067-1075. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1067

Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., Zech, W., 2001. The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften 88, 37-41. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s001140000193

Hass, Amir, Javier M. Gonzalez, Isabel M. Lima, Harry W. Godwin, Jonathan J. Halvorson and Douglas G. Boyer. 2012. Chicken Manure Biochar as Liming and Nutrient Source for Acid Appalachian Soil. J. Environmental Quality 41:1096-1106. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1096


Granatstein, D., Kruger, C., Collins, H., Garcia-Perez, M., Yoder, J; Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources Washington State University. 2009. Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment. https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/publications/0907062.pdf

Ippolito, J. A., J. M. Novak, W. J. Busscher, M. Ahmedna, D. Rehrah and D. W. Watts. 2012. Switchgrass Biochar Affects Two Aridisols. J. Environmental Quality 41:1123-1130. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1123

Jeong, Chang Yoon, Jim J. Wang, Syam K. Dodla, Thomas L. Eberhardt and Les Groom. 2012. Effect of Biochar Amendment on Tylosin Adsorption–Desorption and Transport in Two Different Soils. J. Environmental Quality 41:1185-1192. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1185

Johnson, Jane M.F., Francisco J. Arriaga, Gary M. Banowetz, David R. Huggins, David Laird, Michael J. Ottman, Brian J. Wienhold. 2011. Crop Residues of the Contiguous United States:  Balancing feedstock and soil needs with conservation tillage, cover crops, and biochar. In: Ross Braun, Douglas L. Karlen, and Dewayne Johnson (editors) Sustainable Alternative Fuel Feedstock Opportunities, Challenges and Roadmaps for Six U.S. Regions. Proceedings of the Sustainable Feedstocks for Advanced Biofuel Workshop. SWCS publisher. www.swcs.org/roadmap

Johnson, J.M.F., W.W. Wilhelm, D.L. Karlen, D.W. Archerd, B. Wienhold, D.T. Lightle, D. Laird, J. Baker, T.E. Ochsner, J.M. Novak, A.D. Halvorson, F. Arriaga, N.W. Barboura. 2010. Nutrient removal as function of corn stover cutting height and cob harvest.  Biomass Res 3:342-352. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12155-010-9093-3

Kameyama, K., T. Miyamoto, T. Shiono and Y. Shinogi. 2012. Influence of Sugarcane Bagasse-derived Biochar Application on Nitrate Leaching in Calcaric Dark Red Soil. J. Environmental Quality 41:1131-1137. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1131

Kirwan, R., 1793. What are the manures most advantageously applicable to the various sorts of soils, and what are the causes of their beneficial effect in each particular instance? The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 5, 129-198. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30078693

Laird, D.A., P.D. Fleming, D.D. Davis, R. Horton, B. Wang, and D.L. Karlen. 2010a. Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158:443-449. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001670611000176X

Laird, D.A., P.D. Fleming, D.L. Karlen, B. Wang, R. Horton. 2010b. Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158:436-442. http://gaiainternational.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/biocharnutrientleachingmidwesternsoils1.pdf

Laird, David A., Natalia P. Rogovska, Manuel Garcia-Perez, Harold P. Collins, Jason D. Streubel, Matthew Smith, R. 2011. Pyrolysis and Biochar – Opportunities for Distributed Production and Soil Quality Enhancement.  In: Ross Braun, Douglas L. Karlen, and Dewayne Johnson (editors) Sustainable Alternative Fuel Feedstock Opportunities, Challenges and Roadmaps for Six U.S. Regions. Proceedings of the Sustainable Feedstocks for Advanced Biofuel Workshop. SWCS publisher. http://www.swcs.org/documents/resources/Chapter_16__Laird__Pyrolysis_and_Bi_96E09F2679C2B.pdf

Lee, James W., M. Kidder, B.R. Evans, S. Paik, A.C. Buchanan, C.T. Garten, R.C. Brown, RC. 2010. Characterization of Biochars Produced from Cornstovers for Soil Amendment. Environmental Science & Technology.  44: 7970-7974.   DOI: 10.1021/es101337x  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es101337x

Lehmann, J., 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5, 381-387. http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5%5B381:BITB%5D2.0.CO;2

Lehmann, J., C. Czimczik, D. Laird, and  S. Sohi. 2009. Chapter 11: Stability of Biochar in Soil. pp 169-182. In  J. Lehmann and J. Stephen (eds.).  Biochar for Environmental Management. Earthscan.  http://books.google.com/books?id=w-CUty_JIfcC&pg=PA183&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false

Lentz, R. D. and J. A. Ippolito. 2012. Biochar and Manure Affect Calcareous Soil and Corn Silage Nutrient Concentrations and Uptake. J. Environmental Quality  41:1033-1043. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1033

Libra, J.A., Ro, K.S., Kammann, C., Funke, A., Berge, N.D., Neubauer, Y., Titirici, M.-M., Fühner, C., Bens, O., Kern, J., Emmerich, K.-H., 2011. Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: a comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis. Biofuels 2, 71-106. http://karlheinzemmerich.de/Dokumente/HTC_Review_Biofuels_2011.pdf

Major, Julie, Marco Rondon, Diego Molina, Susan J. Riha and Johannes Lehmann. 2012. Nutrient Leaching in a Colombian Savanna Oxisol Amended with Biochar. J. Environmental Quality 41:1076-1086. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1076

Novak, J.M.  W.J. Busscher, D.L. Laird, M. Ahmedna, D.W. Watts, and M.A.S. Niandou. 2009. Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a Southeastern Coastal Plain soil. Soil Science 174:105-112. http://journals.lww.com/soilsci/Abstract/2009/02000/Impact_of_Biochar_Amendment_on_Fertility_of_a.6.aspx

Novak, J.M., W.J. Busscher, D.W. Watts, D.A. Laird, M.A. Ahmedna, M.A.S. Niandou. 2010. Short-term CO2 mineralization after additions of biochar and switchgrass to a Typic Kandiudult. Geoderma 154:281-288. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016706109003322

Novak, J.M., Busscher, W.J., Watts, D.W., Amonette, J.E., Ippolito, J.A., Lima, I.M., Gaskin, J., Das, K.C., Steiner, C., Ahmedna, M., Rehrah, D., Schomberg, H., 2012. Biochars Impact on Soil-Moisture Storage in an Ultisol and Two Aridisols. Soil Sci 177, 310-320. http://eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov/1523/

Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W., 2013. Augmenting soil water storage using uncharred switchgrass and pyrolyzed biochars. Soil Use Manage 29, 98-104. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sum.12026/abstract

Ogawa, M., Okimori, Y., 2010. Pioneering works in biochar research, Japan. Soil Res. 48, 489-500. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=SR10006.pdf

Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq, Diedrich Steffens, Hans Peter Reisenauer and Sven Schubert. 2012. Kinetics of Carbon Mineralization of Biochars Compared with Wheat Straw in Three Soils. J. Environmental Quality 41:1210-1220. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1210

Rogovska, N., P.D. Fleming, D.A. Laird, R.M. Cruse, T.B. Parkin, and D. Meek. 2011. Impact of biochar on manure carbon stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 75:871-879. https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/75/3/871

Sarkhot, Deoyani V., Asmeret Asefaw Berhe and Teamrat A. Ghezzehei .2012. Impact of Biochar Enriched with Dairy Manure Effluent on Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics. J. Environmental Quality 41:1107-1114. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1107

Schnell, Ronnie W., Donald M. Vietor, Tony L. Provin, Clyde L. Munster and Sergio Capareda.2012. Capacity of Biochar Application to Maintain Energy Crop Productivity: Soil Chemistry, Sorghum Growth, and Runoff Water Quality Effects. J. Environmental Quality 41:1044-1051. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1044

Schomberg, Harry H., Julia W. Gaskin, Keith Harris, K.C. Das, Jeff M. Novak, Warren J. Busscher, Don W. Watts, Robin H. Woodroof, Isabel M. Lima, Mohamed Ahmedna, Djaafar Rehrah and Baoshan Xing. 2012.  Influence of Biochar on Nitrogen Fractions in a Coastal Plain Soil. J. Environmental Quality 41:1087-1095. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1087

Sohi, S. P.; E. Krull, E. Lopez-Capel, R. Bol and E. Krull. 2010. A Review of Biochar and Its Use and Function in Soil. Advances in Agronomy 105: 47-52. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065211310050029

Tryon, E.H., 1948. Effect of charcoal on certain physical, chemical, and biological properties of forest soils. Ecol. Monogr 18, 81-115. ftp://ftp.dpvta.uniud.it/peressotti/Biochar/20 centries/US-Tryon1948-Effect of charcoal on certain physical, chemical, and biological properties of forest soils.pdf

Uchimiya, Minori, Keri B. Cantrell, Patrick G. Hunt, Jeffrey M. Novak and SeChin Chang. 2012. Retention of Heavy Metals in a Typic Kandiudult Amended with Different Manure-based Biochars. J. Environmental Quality 41:1138-1149. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1138

Wilhelm, W.W., J.M.F. Johnson, D.T. Lightle, N.W. Barbour, D.L. Karken, J.M. Novak, N.W. Barbour, D.A. Laird,  J.M. Baker, T.E. Ochsner, A.D. Halvorson, D.W. Archer, and F.J. Arriaga. 2011. Vertical Distribution of Corn Stover Dry Mass Grown at Several U.S. Locations.  Bioenerg. Res. (2011) 4:11–21. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12155-010-9097-z

Yoo, Gayoung and Hojeong Kang. 2012. Effects of Biochar Addition on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Microbial Responses in a Short-Term Laboratory Experiment. J. Environmental Quality 41:1193-1202. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1193

Zimmerman, A.R., 2010. Abiotic and Microbial Oxidation of Laboratory-Produced Black Carbon (Biochar). Environmental Science & Technology 44, 1295-1301. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es903140c

Zimmerman, A.R., Gao, B., Ahn, M.-Y., 2011. Positive and negative carbon mineralization priming effects among a variety of biochar-amended soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, 1169-1179. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071711000769#

Biochar Manufacturing
Relationship between pyrolysis temperature and the C concentration of the resulting biochar. Figure from Granatstein et al., 2009

Abdullah, H., Mediaswanti, K.A., Wu, H., 2010. Biochar as a Fuel: 2. Significant Differences in Fuel Quality and Ash Properties of Biochars from Various Biomass Components of Mallee Trees. Energy & Fuels 24, 1972-1979. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ef901435f?journalCode=enfuem

Kauffman N., D. Hayes, R. Brown. 2011. A life cycle assessment of advanced biofuel production from a hectare of corn.  FUEL 90: 3306-3314. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236111003498

 

Laird, David A., Natalia P. Rogovska, Manuel Garcia-Perez, Harold P. Collins, Jason D. Streubel, Matthew Smith, R. 2011. Pyrolysis and Biochar – Opportunities for Distributed Production and Soil Quality Enhancement.  In: Ross Braun, Douglas L. Karlen, and Dewayne Johnson (editors) Sustainable Alternative Fuel Feedstock Opportunities, Challenges and Roadmaps for Six U.S. Regions. Proceedings of the Sustainable Feedstocks for Advanced Biofuel Workshop. SWCS publisher. http://www.swcs.org/documents/resources/Chapter_16__Laird__Pyrolysis_and_Bi_96E09F2679C2B.pdf

Biochar Properties

Abdullah, H., Mediaswanti, K.A., Wu, H., 2010. Biochar as a Fuel: 2. Significant Differences in Fuel Quality and Ash Properties of Biochars from Various Biomass Components of Mallee Trees. Energy & Fuels 24, 1972-1979. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ef901435f?journalCode=enfuem

Allen, R. M., & Laird, D. A. (2013). Quantitative Prediction of Biochar Soil Amendments by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America J. 77: 1784-1794. https://www.soils.org.publications/sssaj/abstracts/77/5/1784?access=0&view=pdf 

Bapat, H.D., Manahan, S.E., 1998. Chemchar gasification of hazardous wastes and mixed wastes on a biochar matrix. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 215, 008-ENVR. http://www.biochar-international.org/node/915

Brewer, Catherine E., Yan-Yan Hu, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr, Thomas E. Loynachan, David A. Laird and Robert C. Brown. 2012. Extent of Pyrolysis Impacts on Fast Pyrolysis Biochar Properties. J. Environmental Quality 41:1115-1122. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1115

Bridgwater, A., 2003. Renewable fuels and chemicals by thermal processing of biomass. Chemical Engineering Journal 91, 87-102. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894702001420

Budai, A., Zimmerman, A., Cowie, A., Webber, J., Singh, B., Glaser, B., Masiello, C., Andersson, D., Shields, F., Lehmann, J., 2013. Biochar Carbon Stability Test Method: An Assessment of Methods To Determine Biochar Carbon Stability, 2013. in: (IBI), I.B.I. (Ed.), Westerville, OH, USA. http://www.biochar-international.org/sites/default/files/IBI_Report_Biochar_Stability_Test_Method_Final.pdf

Busch, Daniela, Claudia Kammann, Ludger Grünhage and Christoph Müller. 2012. Simple Biotoxicity Tests for Evaluation of Carbonaceous Soil Additives: Establishment and Reproducibility of Four Test Procedures. J. Environmental Quality 41:1023-1032 https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1023

Fidel, R. B., Laird, D. A., & Thompson, M. L. 2013. Evaluation of Modified Boehm Titration Methods for Use with Biochars. J. Environmental Quality, 42: 1771-1778. https://www.agronomy.prg/publications/jeq/abstracts/42/6/1771 

Gray, M., Johnson, M.G., Dragila, M.I., Kleber, M., 2014. Water uptake in biochars: The roles of porosity and hydrophobicity. Biomass Bioenerg 61, 196-205. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953413005230#

Ippolito, J. A., D. G. Strawn, K. G. Scheckel, J. M. Novak, M. Ahmedna and M. A. S. Niandou. 2012. Macroscopic and Molecular Investigations of Copper Sorption by a Steam-Activated Biochar. J. Environmental Quality 41:1150-1156. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1150

Jones, T.P., Chaloner, W.G., Kuhlbusch, T.A.G., 1997. Proposed Biogeological and Chemical Based Terminology for Fire-Altered Plant Matter. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-59171-6_2

Kloss, Stefanie, Franz Zehetner, Alex Dellantonio, Raad Hamid, Franz Ottner, Volker Liedtke, Manfred Schwanninger, Martin H. Gerzabek and Gerhard Soja. 2012.Characterization of Slow Pyrolysis Biochars: Effects of Feedstocks and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Properties. J. Environmental Quality 41:990-1000 https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/990

Laird, David A., Natalia P. Rogovska, Manuel Garcia-Perez, Harold P. Collins, Jason D. Streubel, Matthew Smith, R. 2011. Pyrolysis and Biochar – Opportunities for Distributed Production and Soil Quality Enhancement.  In: Ross Braun, Douglas L. Karlen, and Dewayne Johnson (editors) Sustainable Alternative Fuel Feedstock Opportunities, Challenges and Roadmaps for Six U.S. Regions. Proceedings of the Sustainable Feedstocks for Advanced Biofuel Workshop. SWCS publisher. http://www.swcs.org/documents/resources/Chapter_16__Laird__Pyrolysis_and_Bi_96E09F2679C2B.pdf

Ogawa, M., Okimori, Y., 2010. Pioneering works in biochar research, Japan. Soil Res. 48, 489-500. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=SR10006.pdf

Rapp, G., 2009. Pigments and Colorants. Archaeomineralogy. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 201-221. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-540-78594-1_9

Schimmelpfennig, Sonja and Bruno Glaser. 2012. One Step Forward toward Characterization: Some Important Material Properties to Distinguish Biochars. J. Environmental Quality 41:1001-1013. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1001

Streubel, Jason D., Harold P. Collins, Julie M. Tarara and Rebecca L. Cochran. 2012. Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus in Dairy Lagoons. J. Environmental Quality 41:1166-1174. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1166

Wiedner, Katja, Cornelia Rumpel, Christoph Steiner, Alessandro Pozzi, Robert Maas, and Bruno Glaser. 2013. Chemical evaluation of chars produced by thermochemical conversion (gasification, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization) of agro-industrial biomass on a commercial scale. Boimass & Bioenergy 59: 264-278. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953413003723

Biochar's Role in Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change

Allen, R. M., & Laird, D. A. (2013). Quantitative Prediction of Biochar Soil Amendments by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 77(5), 1784-1794. https://www.soils.org.publications/sssaj/abstracts/77/5/1784?access=0&view=pdf 

Augustenborg, Cara A., Simone Hepp, Claudia Kammann, David Hagan, Olaf Schmidt and Christoph Müller. 2012. Biochar and Earthworm Effects on Soil Nitrous Oxide and Carbon Dioxide Emissions. J. Environmental Quality 41:1203-1209. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1203

Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., Zech, W., 2001. The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften 88, 37-41. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s001140000193

Kammann, Claudia, Stefan Ratering, Christian Eckhard and Christoph Müller. 2012. Biochar and Hydrochar Effects on Greenhouse Gas (Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Methane) Fluxes from Soils. J. Environmental Quality 41:1052-1066. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1052

Kauffman N., D. Hayes, R. Brown. 2011. A life cycle assessment of advanced biofuel production from a hectare of corn.  FUEL 90: 3306-3314. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236111003498

Lehmann, J., 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5, 381-387. http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5%5B381:BITB%5D2.0.CO;2

Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq, Diedrich Steffens, Hans Peter Reisenauer and Sven Schubert. 2012. Kinetics of Carbon Mineralization of Biochars Compared with Wheat Straw in Three Soils. J. Environmental Quality 41:1210-1220. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1210

Rogovska, N., P.D. Fleming, D.A. Laird, R.M. Cruse, T.B. Parkin, and D. Meek. 2011. Impact of biochar on manure carbon stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 75:871-879. https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/75/3/871

Stavi, Ilan and Rattan Lal. 2013. Agroforestry and biochar to offset climate change: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33: 81-96. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13593-012-0081-1

Woolf, Dominic, James E Amonette, F. Alayne Street-Perrott, Johannes Lehmann and Stephen Joseph. 2010. Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nature Communications 1: 56. doi:10.1038/ncomms1053. http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v1/n5/full/ncomms1053.html

Yoo, Gayoung and Hojeong Kang. 2012. Effects of Biochar Addition on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Microbial Responses in a Short-Term Laboratory Experiment. J. Environmental Quality 41:1193-1202. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/1193

Zimmerman, A.R., 2010. Abiotic and Microbial Oxidation of Laboratory-Produced Black Carbon (Biochar). Environmental Science & Technology 44, 1295-1301. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es903140c

Zimmerman, A.R., Gao, B., Ahn, M.-Y., 2011. Positive and negative carbon mineralization priming effects among a variety of biochar-amended soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, 1169-1179. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071711000769#

Research Reviews and State of the Knowledge

Ahmad, Mahtab, Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha, Jung Eun Lim, Ming Zhang, Nanthi Bolan, Dinesh Mohan, Meththika Vithanage, Sang Soo Lee, Yong Sik Ok. Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review. 2014 Chemosphere 99:19-33. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653513015051

Barrow, C. J  2012. Biochar: Potential for countering land degradation and for improving agriculture. Applied Geography 34: 21-28. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143622811001780

Beesley, Luke, Eduardo Moreno-Jimenez, Jose L Gomez-Eyles, Eva Harris, Brett Robinson and Tom Sizmur. 2011. A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution. 159: 3269-3282. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749111003939

Biederman, Lori A.; Harpole, W. Stanley. 2013. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta-analysis. Global Change in Biology Bioenergy 5: 202-214. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcbb.12037/abstract

Glaser, Bruno and Jago Jonathan Birk. 2012. State of the scientific knowledge on properties and genesis of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazonia (terra preta de Indio). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 82: 39-51.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001670371100144X

Gurwick, Noel P., Lisa A.; Moore, Charlene Kelly, and Patricia Elias. 2013. A Systematic Review of Biochar Research, with a Focus on Its Stability in situ and Its Promise as a Climate Mitigation Strategy. Plos One DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075932 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0075932

Ippolito, James A., David A. Laird and Warren J. Busscher. 2012 Environmental benefits of biochar. J. Environmental Quality 41:967-972. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/967

Jirka, Stefan and Thayer Tomlinson. 2014. 2013 State of the Biochar Industry A Survey of Commercial Activity in the Biochar Field: Report Overview , A report from the International Biochar Initiative (IBI). http://www.biochar-international.org/sites/default/files/StateoftheBiocharIndustry_2013_4pager_final.pdf

Laird, D.A. 2008. The Charcoal Vision: A win-win-win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality. Agronomy J. 100:178-181. http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/catalog/17624

Laird, David A., Robert C. Brown, James E. Amonette and Johannes Lehmann. 2009. Review of the pyrolysis platform for coproducing bio-oil and biochar Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 3, 547-562. http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/BiofBioproBioref 3, 547-562, 2009 Laird.pdf

Laird, David A. and Jeffrey M. Novak. 2011. Biochar and Soil Quality. In Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Second Edition. Taylor and Francis: New York, Published online: 06 Jan 2011; 1-4. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1081/E-ESS-120045816#.U6NUCLFBnOM

Laird, David A., Natalia P. Rogovska, Manuel Garcia-Perez, Harold P. Collins, Jason D. Streubel, Matthew Smith, R. 2011. Pyrolysis and Biochar – Opportunities for Distributed Production and Soil Quality Enhancement.  In: Ross Braun, Douglas L. Karlen, and Dewayne Johnson (editors) Sustainable Alternative Fuel Feedstock Opportunities, Challenges and Roadmaps for Six U.S. Regions. Proceedings of the Sustainable Feedstocks for Advanced Biofuel Workshop. SWCS publisher. http://www.swcs.org/documents/resources/Chapter_16__Laird__Pyrolysis_and_Bi_96E09F2679C2B.pdf

Ogawa, M., Okimori, Y., 2010. Pioneering works in biochar research, Japan. Soil Res. 48, 489-500. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=SR10006.pdf

Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Novak, J.M., Archer, D.W., Ippolito, J.A., Collins, H.P., Boateng, A.A., Lima, I.M., Lamb, M.C., McAloon, A.J., Lentz, R.D., Nichols, K.A., 2012. Biochar:  A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration. J. Envioronmental Quality 41, 973-989. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/973

Stavi, Ilan and Rattan Lal. 2013. Agroforestry and biochar to offset climate change: a review Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33: 81-96. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13593-012-0081-1

The Economics of Biochar

Brown T.R., M.M. Wright, R.C. Brown. 2011. Estimating profitability of two biochar production scenarios: slow pyrolysis vs fast pyrolysis. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining 5: 54-68. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bbb.254/abstract

Biomass Conversion

Brewer C.E., K. Schmidt-Rohr, J.A. Satrio, R.C. Brown. 2009. Characterization of Biochar from Fast Pyrolysis and Gasification Systems. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 28: 386-396. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ep.10378/full

Bridgwater, A.V., Meier, D., Radlein, D., 1999. An overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass. Organic Geochemistry 30, 1479-1493. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0146638099001205#

Butuzova, L., Razvigorova, M., Krzton, A., Minkova, V., 1998. The effect of water on the yield and structure of the products of brown coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation. Fuel 77, 639-643. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236197002123#

Libra, J.A., Ro, K.S., Kammann, C., Funke, A., Berge, N.D., Neubauer, Y., Titirici, M.-M., Fühner, C., Bens, O., Kern, J., Emmerich, K.-H., 2011. Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: a comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis. Biofuels 2, 71-106. http://karlheinzemmerich.de/Dokumente/HTC_Review_Biofuels_2011.pdf

Mullen, C.A., A.A. Boateng, N. Goldberg, I.M. Lima, D.A. Laird, and K.B. Hicks. 2010. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis. Biomass and Bioenergy. 34:67-74. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953409002037

Williams, P.T., Besler, S., 1996. The influence of temperature and heating rate on the slow pyrolysis of biomass. Renewable Energy 7, 233-250. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0960148196000067#

Yaman, S., 2004. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. Energy Conversion and Management 45, 651-671. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890403001778#

Yip, K., Wu, H., Zhang, D.-k., 2007. Effect of Inherent Moisture in Collie Coal during Pyrolysis Due to in-Situ Steam Gasification. Energy & Fuels 21, 2883-2891. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ef7002443

Yu, F., Deng, S., Chen, P., Liu, Y., Wan, Y., Olson, A., Kittelson, D., Ruan, R., 2007. Physical and chemical properties of bio-oils from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 137-140, 957-970.http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-60327-181-3_78

Zhang, Q., Chang, J., Wang, T., Xu, Y., 2007. Review of biomass pyrolysis oil properties and upgrading research. Energy Conversion and Management 48, 87-92. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890406001701#

 

 

CenUSA Bioenergy is a coordinated research and education effort investigating the creation of a regional system in the Central US for producing advanced transportation fuels from perennial grasses on land that is either unsuitable  or marginal for row crop production.

In addition to producing advanced biofuels, the proposed system will improve the sustainability of existing cropping systems by reducing agricultural runoff of nutrients in soil and increasing carbon sequestration. Research Partners lead by Iowa State University: USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Purdue University, University of Illinois, University of Minnesota, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, University of Vermont, and University of Wisconsin

CenUSA is supported by Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2011-68005-30411 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

 

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This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.