Table 1. Pathogen levels

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Table. Potential pathogen levels in manure and municipal wastewater treatment residual wastes.  Pathogens are presented as a range of low to high levels as reported in the cited references. 

Pathogen

Manure or biosolids pathogen level

Residual Source

Range CFU or PFU dry g-1

References

Bacteria

 

Low        High

 

 

 

 

Campylobacter jejuni

Bovine

4.1 x 101 - 5.3 x 102

Hutchison et al., 2005a

Poultry

1.5 x 101 - 7.6 x 103

Hutchison et al., 2005a; Kelley et al., 1994

Swine

4.2 x 101 - 5.1 x 103

Chinivasagam et al., 2004; Hutchison et al., 2005a; McLaughlin et al., 2009

Raw Sludge

2.6  x 103 - 3.8 x 103

Betaieb et al., 1990; Jones et al., 1990

Class B Biosolids

1.6 x 100

Betaieb et al., 1990; Jones et al., 1990; Pepper et al., 2010

E. coli O157

Bovine

2.4 x 101 - 1.2 x 103

Berry et al., 2005; Hutchison et al., 2005a

Listeria monocytogenes

Bovine

3.3 x 102 - 1.1 x 103

Hutchison et al., 2005a

Poultry

4.0 x 101 - 8.3 x 102

Hutchison et al., 2005a; Brooks et al., 2009

Swine

1.4 x 101 - 3.1 x 103

Hutchison et al., 2005a; McLaughlin et al., 2009

Raw Sludge

2.3 x 102 - 1.5 x 103

Garrec et al., 2003

Class B Biosolids

8.3 x 10-1 - 2.6 x 101

Garrec et al., 2003

Salmonella spp.

Bovine

1.6 x 102 - 2.5 x 103

Hutchison et al., 2005a

Poultry

9.6 x 10-1 - 4.0 x 103

Brooks et al., 2008; Hutchison et al., 2005a

Swine

6.2 x 100 - 4.1 x 102

Chinivasagam et al., 2004; Hutchison et al., 2005a; McLaughlin et al., 2009; Vanotti et al., 2005

Raw Sludge

5.1 x 102 - 1.1 x 104

Pepper et al., 2010; Gerba et al., 2008

Class B Biosolids

5.0 x 100 - 1.1 x 102

Pepper et al., 2010; Gerba et al., 2008

Virus

           

Adenovirus

Raw Sludge

2.8 x 101 – 5.8 x 102

Viau et al., 2009§, Pepper et al., 2010

Class B Biosolids

3.7 x 100 – 4.3 x 102

Viau et al., 20093; Pepper et al., 2010

Enteroviruses

Raw Sludge

4.8 x 100 - 3.5 x 102

Soares et al., 1994;Guzman et al., 2007; Pepper et al., 2010

Class B Biosolids

1.0 x 10-1 - 1.3 x 102

Soares et al., 1994; Guzman et al., 2007; Pepper et al., 2010

Norovirus

Raw Sludge

3.6 x 103 - 2.0 x 107

Wong et al., 2010

Class B Biosolids

1.0 x 103- 3.0 x 103

Wong et al., 2010

Parasite

           

Cryptosporidium parvum

Bovine

2.8 x 10-1 – 1.8 x 102

Heitman et al., 2002; Hutchison et al., 2005a; Atwill et al., 2006; Lalancette et al., 2012

Raw Sludge

1.3 x 101 - 6.4 x 101

Guzman et al., 2007

Class B Biosolids

7.4 x 10-2 - 6.7 x 100

Guzman et al., 2007

               

                   

‡. Ranges were presented as lower and upper bound positive values assuming pathogen presence in the residual; it is possible that a residual source could be below detection limits or 0 g-1 which would yield insignificant risks.  

§. Viau and Peccia (2009) and Wong et al. (2010) data was converted from genomic unit g-1 to infectious unit g-1 using a 1000:1 and 50:1 genomic:infectious unit ratio, respectively.

 

Question or concerns, contact John Brooks (john.brooks@ars.usda.gov)

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This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.