Linaria vulgaris, Yellow Toadflax

Gardens & Landscapes, Invasive Species, Extension Master Gardener September 21, 2012 Print Friendly and PDF

Invasive Species: Linaria vulgaris, Yellow Toadflax

Yellow toadflax is an invasive perennial herb that can reach 3.3 ft. (1 m) tall. Leaves are nearly sessile, drooping, linear, and 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5 cm) long. Leaves can sometimes be sparsely covered by long hairs. Flowering occurs from May to September, when yellow/white, snapdragon-like flowers develop. Flowers, including the spur, are 0.6 to 1.2 in. (1.5 to 3 cm) long and occur in racemes at the apex of the stems. Fruits are capsules that are 0.4 to 0.5 in. (9 to 12 mm) long. Each capsule contains small, flat seeds with a papery wing. Yellow toadflax is native to Europe and was introduced into North America, as an ornamental, in the mid 1600s. Plants occur in fields, pastures, roadsides, undisturbed prairies, and rangelands.

What are invasive species and why should we be concerned about them? 


Taxonomy: Scientific and Common Names for This Species

Scrophulariales > Scrophulariaceae > Linaria vulgaris P. Mill.

Synonym(s): butter and eggs, Jacob's ladder, wild snapdragon

Linaria vulgaris - USDA PLANTS Profile

Distribution Maps

Yellow toadflax - The reported distribution of this invasive species across the United States (Source: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States)

Up-to-the-minute distribution maps and why they are important 

Reporting This Invasive Species

What is the best way and place to report the occurrence of an invasive species? 

 How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS - Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System

EDDMapS - Report an invasive species to EDDMapS.

Cooperative Extension Offices - Find your local Cooperative Extension office on this map provided by USDA.

How to Identify

This invasive species can be identified by looking for the characteristics described in the paragraphs that follow.

Plant

Yellow toadflax is a perennial herb that can reach 3.3 ft. (1 m) tall.

Michael Shephard, USDA Forest service, bugwood.org William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, bugwood.org

Foliage

Leaves are nearly sessile, drooping, linear, and 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5 cm) long. Leaves can sometimes be sparsely covered by long hairs.

John Cardina, Ohio State University, bugwood.org Bonnie Million, National Park Service, bugwood.org

Flower

Flowering occurs from May to September, when yellow/white, snapdragon-like flowers develop. Flowers, including the spur, are 0.6 to 1.2 in. (1.5 to 3 cm) long and occur in racemes at the apex of the stems.

Caleb Slemmons, University of Maine, bugwood.org Steve Dewey, Utah State University, bugwood.org

Fruit

Fruits are capsules that are 0.4 to 0.5 in. (9 to 12 mm) long. Each capsule contains small, flat seeds with a papery wing.

Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, bugwood.org Steve Dewey, Utah State University,  bugwood.org

Native Species That Can Resemble Yellow Toadflax

- Images at invasive.org

   
bugwood.org bugwood.org

- Images at invasive.org

   
bugwood.org bugwood.org

Additional Images for Yellow Toadflax

Yellow toadflax - Images at Invasive.org

Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Control and management recommendations vary according to individual circumstances. Location, habitat, weather, and a variety of other conditions are factors that help determine the best treatment choice. To find the safest and most effective treatment for your situation, consult your state's land-grant institution. If you will use chemicals as part of the control process, always refer to the product label.

United States Land-Grant University System - Find your land-grant university's college of agriculture, Cooperative Extension office, or other related partner on this map provided by USDA.

Element Stewardship Abstract - The Nature Conservancy

Global Invasive Species Database - Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Plant profiles - California Invasive Plant Council

Technical Note−Invasive Species - USDA, NRCS

Weeds - Tahoeinvasiveweeds.org

Fact Sheets - University of Nevada Cooperative Extension

Stop the Spread - North Dakota State University & USDA

Weed-Factsheet - New Mexico State University

Alaska Natural Heritage Program - University of Alaska Anchorage

Fire Effects Information System - USDA Forest Service

Connect with us

  • Twitter
  • Facebook
  • Pinterest

Welcome

This is where you can find research-based information from America's land-grant universities enabled by eXtension.org

LOCATE

USDA / NIFA

This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.