National Workshop on Climate and Forests Poster Abstracts – May 17th, 2011

Climate, Forests and Woodlands June 28, 2012 Print Friendly and PDF

National Workshop on Climate and Forests

Poster Session Abstracts, May 17, 2011

DuBois Conference Center, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona

The following are posters that were presented during the Poster Session of the National Workshop on Climate and Forests. A few have been made available by the authors. For additional questions or information, please contact authors indicated for each poster.

Links to Individual Poster Abstracts

ALL POSTER ABSTRACTS

WHY URBAN TREES MATTER

IMPROVING FOREST RESILIENCY WITH BIOCHAR

SOILS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

TRADEOFFS BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION: INSIGHTS FROM LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

FORESTRY TOUR EDUCATES YOUTH AND TEACHERS

ECOSYSTEM VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND SYNTHESIS

EXPOSING URBAN YOUTH TO SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY INITIATIVES

ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH LANDSCAPE RESTORATION PROJECTS IN THE CROWN OF THE CONTINENT

CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND UNEVEN-AGED MANAGEMENT OF LOBLOLLY-SHORTLEAF PINES IN LOUISIANA: A JOINT OPTIMIZATION APPROACH

USING TREE RINGS TO ASSESS CARBON STORE VULNERABILITY

EFFECTS OF AND RESPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON NATIONAL FORESTS

DETERMINING THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF PRIVATE FOREST LANDOWNERS REGARDING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE FOREST VEGETATION SIMULATOR

WEST-WIDE MICROCLIMATE SAMPLING NETWORK AND FINE-SCALE CLIMATE PREDICTION

DESCRIPTION OF PRE- AND POST-TREATMENT MONITORING OF WUI COMMUNITY FUEL REDUCTION PROJECTS TO CREATE FIRE RESILIENCY

WOOD ENERGY ROADMAP

USING PHENOLOGY AS A TOOL FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OLD PONDEROSA PINE TREE GROWTH, RESTORATION TREATMENTS, AND CLIMATE IN NORTHERN ARIZONA

ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN FOREST COMMUNITIES IN LATIN AMERICA THROUGH ADVOCACY COALITIONS

TREE MORTALITY IN DROUGHT-STRESSED MIXED-CONIFER AND PONDEROSA PINE FORESTS, ARIZONA

GENETIC VARIATION IN PRODUCTIVITY OF RIPARIAN PLANTS: ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH RESTORATION AND ASSISTED MIGRATION

CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE FRAMEWORK PROJECT – LESSONS LEARNED AND EXPANSION

CLIMATE ADAPTATION KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE (CAKE): YOUR ONLINE ADAPTATION DESTINATION

CARBON SEQUESTRATION, LANDOWNER COMPENSATION, AND MANAGEMENT CHOICES IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

POLICIES FOR ADAPTATION IN FORESTRY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

TOOLS FOR FOREST CARBON ESTIMATION AND MANAGEMENT

VALIDATING EMPIRICAL BIOCLIMATIC MODEL PREDICTIONS OF CLIMATE IMPACTS: SPRUCE DECLINE IN NORTHERN ARIZONA

FOREST ADAPTATION RESOURCES: CLIMATE CHANGE TOOLS AND APPROACHES FOR LAND MANAGERS

WOOD ENERGY COALITION IN MARYLAND

EXTENDING CURRENT SCIENCE ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE TO FOREST MANAGEMENT AGENCIES IN THE TAHOE BASIN

CLIMATE CHANGE WORKSHOPS: TARGETING THE PROFESSIONAL FORESTERS AND NATURAL RESOURCE LAND MANAGERS OF MINNESOTA

MANAGING UNCERTAINTY IN CLIMATE-DRIVEN ECOLOGICAL MODELS TO INFORM ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

DOUGLAS-FIR PRODUCTIVITY AND NEAR-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE

INTEGRATING RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION FOR SOUTHERN PINE CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION

DESIGNING EFFECTIVE FOREST RESTORATION TREATMENTS TO AUGMENT SNOW WATER

PREDICTING FOREST-SPECIFIC CLIMATE CHANGE USING DOWNSCALED CLIMATE MODELS

COLLABORATIVE REGIONAL EXTENSION PROGRAMMING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE: LEVERAGING THE CONIFER CAP AFRI GRANT IN THE SOUTH

REGIONAL EXTENSION APPROACHES TO CLIMATE CHANGE: SOUTHERN CONIFER AFRI GRANT

DECIPHERING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

REDD+ IN BRAZIL: DESIGN AND CARBON MODELING OF AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM

BIOMASS UTILIZATION IN CENTRAL ARIZONA: HOW DOES STEWARDSHIP CONTRACTING INFLUENCE OPPORTUNITIES?

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS VS. FOREST CARBON SEQUESTRATION: IS SITKA, ALASKA, CARBON NEUTRAL?

TORREFIED WOOD FOR COFIRING IN PULVERIZED COAL FACILITIES: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW

AERIAL SURVEYS AS A MONITORING TOOL FOR DROUGHT-BARK BEETLE INTERACTIONS IN CALIFORNIA

ENHANCING FIRE SCIENCE EXCHANGE: THE JOINT FIRE SCIENCE PROGRAM’S NATIONAL NETWORK OF KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE CONSORTIA

THE SOUTHWEST FIRE SCIENCE CONSORTIUM: A NEW OPPORTUNITY IN FIRE SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT

THE KAMLOOPS FUTURE FOREST STRATEGY: A COLLABORATIVE APPROACH

FORECASTING PINYON PINE VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE USING AVAILABLE SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON PONDEROSA PINE REGENERATION ON THE COCONINO NATIONAL FOREST, ARIZONA

CLIMATE-SENSITIVE GROWTH MODELS FOR SIX INTERIOR CALIFORNIA CONIFER SPECIES

DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR ECOLOGICAL FORESTRY AND CARBON MANAGEMENT IN LONGLEAF PINE

SCIENCE DELIVERY THROUGH THE CLIMATE CHANGE RESOURCE CENTER

CLIMATE CHANGE HANDBOOK: A CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO THOUGHTFUL ACTION

THE SOUTHWEST CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE: BUILDING RESILIENCE IN CHANGING LANDSCAPES

ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE DIVERSITY AND SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN ARIZONA’S SKY ISLANDS

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WILDLIFE: IMPACTS, UNCERTAINTIES, AND ADAPTATIONS

WILL BLACK OAK SURVIVE CLIMATE CHANGE IN MIDWESTERN AMERICAN?

COMMUNITY REFORESTATION AS POST-DISASTER RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE

TEMPLATE FOR ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS: APPLICATIONS IN FOREST PLAN REVISION ON THE GEORGE WASHINGTON NATIONAL FOREST

BUILDING STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN EXTENSION AND RESEARCHER ORGANIZATIONS TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE

EXTENSION AND RESEARCH COLLEAGUES IDENTIFY COMMON MISSION AND COLLABORATIVE ACTIONS THROUGH CLIMATE CHANGE STUDY RETREAT

IMPACT EVALUATION OF THE CARBON CREDIT PROGRAM IN MINNESOTA

Abstracts

WHY URBAN TREES MATTER

Allen, B.M.*

Assistant Professor/ Extension Specialist, School of Forestry & Wildlife Sciences, 602 Duncan Drive, 3301 SFWS Building, Auburn University, AL 36849, allenbm@auburn.edu

Trees in urban areas are important helpers in the fight to reduce climate change. Their role in modifying local climates helps provide a more comfortable and safe environment for urban dwellers. They offer protection from direct sunlight, and through shade and evapotranspiration, trees moderate the urban heat-island effect. Strategic placement around buildings helps save energy and money by reducing heating and cooling expenses. Trees also help protect and shelter open urban spaces by influencing wind speed and turbulence. They help mitigate the impact of some major air pollutants, reducing carbon dioxide levels, storing carbon in their wood, and releasing oxygen into the atmosphere.

IMPROVING FOREST RESILIENCY WITH BIOCHAR

Archuleta, J. (1), Page-Dumroese, D. (2), Bennett, K.A.* (3)

(1)  Forest Soil Scientist, Umatilla National Forest 2517 SW Hailey Avenue, Pendleton, OR 97801, jarchuleta@fs.fed.us, (2) Research Soil Scientist Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, 1221 South Main Street, Moscow, ID 83843, ddumroese@fs.fed.us, (3) Regional Soil Program Leader, USFS Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR 97204 kabennett@fs.fed.us

One of the anticipated effects of climate change is an increase in the duration and intensity of drought, resulting in increased frequency and severity of fire on the landscape. Wildlife habitat, water quality, and soil productivity are all potentially affected by this outcome. National Forests have a limited ability to remove fuels to reduce the spread and impact of fire because of the large number of acres, high cost of treatment, and the lack of a market for the woody material. Biochar (charcoal produced from woody biomass in the absence of oxygen) production is one alternative use for excess biomass. The creation of a value-added forest product may potentially pay for additional fuels treatments when strategically placed on the landscape, thereby minimizing fire severity risk and improving soil function. Not only does processing slash into biochar reduce CO2 emissions from burning slash piles, biochar added to soil increases water storage by 22% in volcanic ash soils (with similar results on other soil types), thereby extending the “green-up” and growth of vegetation much longer into the growing season. There is also evidence of enhanced nutrient retention and availability and increased soil carbon sequestration. Using biochar to amend soil water-holding capacity can help facilitate a more resilient forest ecosystem in the face of a changing climate.  Biochar additions are particularly effective in soils with little or no native organic matter and can increase native plant growth in degraded ecosystems.

SOILS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Bennett, K.A.* (1), Campbell, S. (2)

(1) Regional Soil Program Leader PUSFS Pacific Northwest Region, 333 SW 1st Avenue, Portland, OR 97204,kabennett@fs.fed.us, (2)Soil Scientist,  USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, West National Technology Support Center, 1201 NE Lloyd Blvd., Suite 1000, Portland, OR, 97232-1208, steve.campbell@por.usda.gov

Soil information can be used to help identify where landscapes are either resilient or vulnerable to climate change. Terrestrial Ecological Unit Inventory (TEUI) identifies specific soil properties that help to describe how forest and rangeland vegetation will respond to climate change. This poster highlights how soil moisture and temperature regimes can help predict portions of the landscape where vegetation changes are most likely to occur.  In addition, soil textures, depth, and rock content are indicators of moisture-holding capacity, and maps of these elements can indicate moisture-limited portions of the landscape that may be exacerbated based on climatic factors such as lengthened drought cycles or increased drought severities. Management prescriptions can be implemented to help forests adapt to projected climate impacts at critical places in the landscape based on soil characteristics. Alternatively, identification of intact ash caps help managers understand where on the landscape drought stress may least be felt. Hydric soils units can be used to predict where on the landscape low flows may be augmented or stream temperature changes attenuated. In addition, measurements of soil organic matter refine vegetation series projections of total ecosystem carbon values. Adding forest floor carbon values as a component of soil carbon can indicate areas where nutrient cycling processes may have been accelerated or truncated based on altered management regimes.

TRADEOFFS BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION: INSIGHTS FROM LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

Bradford, J.B.* (1), D’Amato, A.W. (2)

1) U.S. Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Colorado Plateau Research Station, P.O. Box 5614, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, jbradford@usgs.gov, (2) University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 115 Green Hall, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN 55108

As natural resource management and conservation goals expand and evolve, practitioners and policymakers are increasingly seeking strategies to optimize outcomes among multiple, often contradictory objectives. We describe an approach to quantifying the consequences of alternative management options in terms of benefits and tradeoffs among multiple objectives. We demonstrate this approach using long-term forest management experiments to assess benefits and tradeoffs in carbon storage, carbon sequestration, structural complexity, and old-growth characteristics. Calculating benefit and tradeoff as outlined here provides scientists, managers, and policymakers with a framework for quantitatively assessing the outcomes of specific management actions with respect to multiple, simultaneously important objectives. The calculations rely on simple, well-known statistical measures, and differential weighting of individual objectives provides an opportunity to quantitatively favor some objectives over others without completely discarding any given objective. The specific values of mean benefit and tradeoff presented here are dependent on the suite of  objectives examined in this case study and are not intended to definitively identify the “best” management strategy.  Rather, the simple calculations of overall outcomes is an acknowledgment that the best solution varies from place to place and evolves with management goals, requiring an assessment approach that is approachable, quantitative, and flexible. Results illustrate that high overall benefits observed in some management strategies are often associated with large tradeoffs among individual objectives. 

FORESTRY TOUR EDUCATES YOUTH AND TEACHERS

Brooks, R.H.*

Extension Forestry Specialist, Forest Ecology & Biogeosciences, University of Idaho, CNR 211D, P.O. Box 441140, Moscow, ID 83844-1140,  rbrooks@uidaho.edu

The population of the Clearwater Basin area of north-central Idaho represents a growing diversity of cultural and geographical backgrounds. Many residents, whether new to the area or employed in other industries, may be unfamiliar with the natural resource-based enterprises the area economy is built upon. This unfamiliarity often leads to misunderstandings regarding best management practices (BMPs) and natural resource issues. An educational program (in the form of a three-day, two-night tour) relative to the natural resource-based industries has been designed in such a way as to help the audience better understand natural resource issues and natural resource uses. This year the educational program on forestry and natural resources was targeted toward youth just completing the sixth grade and all school teachers interested in natural resources. The desired effect was to provide both with a balanced view of the importance and impact of natural resource-based industries on their lives and environment. To date, over 4,000 sixth graders have participated in the tour. It has evolved from a simple one-day tour of logging operations into a three-day, two-night natural resources tour focusing on all aspects of forestry, wildlife, water quality, and natural resources. In 1998, the tour received teacher certification credit status through the University of Idaho for two credits. Since then, 504 sixth graders, 19 bus drivers, 106 teen leaders, and 49 adult chaperones have attended the tour. Sixty-nine teachers have attended the tour for U.I. credits. All participants fill out evaluations. In 2010, 96% of attendees said they actually learned something new about forestry. Evaluations indicated that there was a 70% increase in natural resource knowledge. The tour remains a highlight of the youth’s sixth grade school year. Some teachers have returned multiple times just to be a chaperone and to receive additional U.I. credits. It is anticipated that many schoolteachers in the Clearwater Region will attend the tour in the future as awareness increases. This will equip teachers/educators with additional knowledge to teach and address natural resource issues. Teachers who have attended the tour will be surveyed in the future to assess any increased natural resource skills in the classroom.

ECOSYSTEM VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND SYNTHESIS

Butler, P.R.* (1), Swanston, C.W. (2), Janowiak, M.K. (3), Handler, S.D. (4)

(1) School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, prbutler@mtu.edu, (2) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, sdhandler@fs.fed.us, (3) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, mjanowiak02@fs.fed.us, (4) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, cswanston@fs.fed.us

An Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment and Synthesis was created to evaluate key ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change across northern Wisconsin under a range of future climate scenarios. This document included a description of northern Wisconsin’s contemporary landscape, projected climatic changes for the end of the century, model results describing potential changes in forest composition as a result of climate change, and a synthesis of the implications of climate change on forest ecosystems in northern Wisconsin. We also used two very different impact models – LANDIS-II and the Climate Change Atlas – to examine changes to forest ecosystems, and then compared the results of these two models to assess shifting stressors, ecosystem responses to shifting stressors, ecosystem vulnerabilities, and management implications. Over the next century, it is virtually certain that temperatures in northern Wisconsin will increase, growing seasons will become longer, and the nature and timing of precipitation will change. Forests are expected to respond to changing stressors in a number of ways, including through northward shifts in suitable habitat, declines of many dominant species, and altered successional trajectories. Certain species, communities, and ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to severe declines in abundance or may be lost entirely from the landscape.  Forest management, which has always had an important influence on forest composition, structure, and function, is expected to continue influencing the way that forests respond to climate change. A second version of the northern Wisconsin assessment and two new assessments covering northern ecoregions in Michigan and Minnesota are under way.

EXPOSING URBAN YOUTH TO SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY INITIATIVES

Byars, S.C.* (1), Cochran, B.F.* (2)

(1) Agriculture and Natural Resources Program Leader, West Virginia State University Extension Service, 904 Curtis Complex, Institute, WV 25112, sbyars@wvstateu.edu, (2) Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension Associate, West Virginia State University Extension Service, 904 Curtis Complex, Institute, WV 25112, bcochran2@wvstateu.edu

Children from PAAC came to the campus of West Virginia State University where they were shown various sustainable urban forestry practices and taught through the Junior Master Gardener "Literature in the Garden" curriculum. The first thing the children saw upon arrival was a tree planting demonstration by the Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension Service staff. Next, Andy Sheetz of the West Virginia Division of Forestry presented the winner of the agency's annual Arbor Day Poster Contest. He also displayed all of the winning posters from years past. At this point, the children were broken up into groups based on their grade in school. These groups were K-3 and 4-8. The group of K-3 children were read "Fall Isn't Easy" by the Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension Associate. After completion of the book, the children did a group project in which they decorated a tree with leaves in fall colors showing what they learned from the book. The older children, grades 4-8, were read "Brother Eagle, Sister Sky" by the 4-H Youth Development Extension agent. Upon completion of this book, the children did an activity from the Junior Master Gardener "Literature in the Garden" curriculum called "The Wild Side of Me." In this activity, the children used all natural materials (rocks, sticks, flowers, leaves, etc.) to make a picture of themselves. When each group was finished, they met back up and were given a Colorado blue spruce seedling to plant at home as well as other informational tools to take with them to show family and friends what they learned.

ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH LANDSCAPE RESTORATION PROJECTS IN THE CROWN OF THE CONTINENT

Carlson, A.A.* (1), Belote, R.T. (2)

(1) Climate Associate, The Wilderness Society, 503 West Mendenhall, Bozeman, MT 59715, Anne_Carlson@tws.org; (2) Ecologist, The Wilderness Society, 503 West Mendenhall, Bozeman, MT 59715, Travis_Belote@tws.org

Climate change has already significantly affected the Crown of the Continent (COC), a 12-million-acre landscape located in northwest Montana and southern British Columbia and Alberta. Warmer and drier conditions have melted mountain glaciers and permanent snowfields, led to significant declines in snowpack and stream flows, and resulted in larger and more severe wildfires. These changes in climate, coupled with other human-induced stressors, have resulted in considerable impacts on the Crown’s alpine communities, coniferous forests, wildlife species, and trout fisheries. Scientists and managers have highlighted the potential benefits of adopting adaptation strategies to address climate change in large landscapes, strategies that include: (1) restoring and managing ecosystem functions, (2) enhancing connectivity for wildlife species within regions, (3) focusing on keystone or indicator species, (4) reducing non-climate threats and stressors, (5) developing and implementing effective monitoring programs, (6) collaborating at appropriate scales, and (7) engaging local communities. To both restore ecological function and prepare ecosystems for future climate-induced stressors, the Southwest Crown of the Continent Collaborative (SWCC) is planning to treat 46,000 acres of forests using mechanical thinning and prescribed fire, decommission 400 miles of roads, restore 937 miles of streams, upgrade 150 stream-crossing structures, treat 81,000 acres of noxious weeds, and reduce fuel loads on 27,000 acres of Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) lands. These projects will create 170 full- and part-time jobs each year in local communities. Additionally, the implementation of a large-scale monitoring program will allow evaluation of the short- and long-term effectiveness of restoration projects to inform future management strategies and actions within an adaptive framework. Ultimately, the success of these projects and the maintenance of valued ecosystem services depend as much on their ability to meet community needs – creating jobs, boosting rural economies, keeping lumber mills in business, making communities safer from wildfires – as it does on use of the best-available science.

CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND UNEVEN-AGED MANAGEMENT OF LOBLOLLY-SHORTLEAF PINES IN LOUISIANA: A JOINT OPTIMIZATION APPROACH

Chang, S.J. (1), Parajuli, R.* (2)

(1) Professor, School of Renewable Natural Resources, LSU AG Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70802, xp2610@lsu.edu, (2) Graduate Student, School of Renewable Natural Resources, LSU AG Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70802, rparaj1@lsu.edu

Forest carbon sequestration is regarded as a viable and cost-effective option for reducing the global green-house gas emissions. Several studies have been carried out to analyze the effect of joint management of carbon and timber under different even-aged forest management scenarios and concluded that carbon credits can alter forest management schedules significantly. However, research specifically focused on the inclusion of carbon sequestration benefits into uneven-aged management has received little attention among researchers. This study first determines the optimum joint management regime of timber and carbon under uneven-aged management of loblolly-shortleaf pines stands in the market context of Louisiana and assesses management and financial impacts resulting from the integration of carbon benefits into uneven-aged management. We generated both growth and carbon data using the USDA Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS)-Southern (SN) variant program.  We applied the generalized Faustmann model for uneven-aged management to determine the land expectation values (LEVs) at every level of residual basal area and cutting cycle. In order to analyze the effects of interest rates and stumpage prices, we carried out sensitivity analyses at three different interest rates and stumpage prices. We found the optimum cutting cycle of 18 years and residual basal area of 60 square feet with the maximum LEV of $1,312.24. The study shows that the inclusion of carbon benefits into uneven-aged loblolly-shortleaf pines stands not only increases the LEV but also lengthens the cutting cycle significantly. Similar to previous studies, the study concludes that interest rate and stumpage prices have opposite effects on the optimum management regimes of uneven-aged loblolly-shortleaf stands. The joint management of timber and carbon under uneven-aged management is profitable and might be an important additional income source to private landowners in the southern United States.

USING TREE RINGS TO ASSESS CARBON STORE VULNERABILITY

Chiriboga, A.T.*

Doctoral Candidate, Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, Geosciences Department, University of Arizona, 105 West Stadium, Tucson, AZ 85721, aprilc@email.arizona.edu

Global change related to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has spurred the development of carbon accounting methods within the terrestrial biosphere. These methods reveal both 1) how carbon stores may mitigate global change resulting from increasing atmospheric CO2, and conversely, 2) how global change affects the size of these stores and the movement of carbon through them.  Accounting methods are continually improving, and the demand for longer records, with higher spatial and temporal resolution, is growing. Dendrochronological approaches have the promise of lengthening carbon storage records, on an annual time scale, wherever suitable trees grow. An additional benefit derived from traditional dendrochronological techniques is the ability to identify factors, both endogenous and exogenous, that affect tree growth and therefore carbon storage. These contributions will greatly improve sensitivity and vulnerability assessments of forest resources, which will ultimately inform future management decisions. Here I use Populus grandidentata from a northern hardwood forest in Northern Michigan to explore how tree rings can be used to identify environmental factors responsible for large reductions in carbon storage in a forest stand, in the past, present, and future. Current carbon sequestration efforts include the creation of large plantations of Populus sp. The results from this study provide guidance for predicting how this type of carbon store will respond to changing climate.

EFFECTS OF AND RESPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON NATIONAL FORESTS

Cleaves, D. (1), Reinhardt, E. (2), Kane, J. (3), Dowd, C.* (4)

(1) USDA Forest Service, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, Mailstop 1141, Washington, DC 20250, dcleaves@fs.fed.us (2) USDA Forest Service, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, Mailstop 1141, Washington, DC 20250, ereinhardt@fs.fed.us (3) USDA Forest Service, Tongass National Forest, Ketchikan, AK 99901, jakane@fs.fed.us (4) USDA Forest Service, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, Mailstop 1141, Washington, DC, 20250, cdowd@fs.fed.us

Changes in temperature and precipitation regimes that result from climate change impact both ecosystem structure and processes. The effects of climate change are already appearing on our nation’s forests and grasslands. These include changing water flow, increased fire risk, and increased threats from insects and disease. For example, in southeast Alaska, climate change is linked to the decline of yellow-cedar, a culturally and economically valuable tree. Rapid warming in the Southwest is driving declines in spring snowpack and river flows. In response, National Forests and Grasslands are adjusting management options to cope with these changing conditions. As a first step, the USDA Forest Service is assessing current risks, vulnerabilities, policies, and gaps in knowledge and engaging employees and partners in seeking solutions and learning about climate change and its impacts. We are continuing to build strong partnerships with other USDA agencies, other federal agencies, tribes, states, communities, and citizens. Land managers are beginning to incorporate adaptation, mitigation, sustainable consumption, and education objectives into our existing programs, policies, and processes as they manage for resilience, in ecosystems as well as in human communities, to ensure the continued flow of goods and services from forests and grasslands. This poster highlights several of the effects of and responses to climate change on National Forests and Grasslands.

DETERMINING THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF PRIVATE FOREST LANDOWNERS REGARDING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Creighton, J.H.* (1), Schnepf, C. (2), Grotta, A. (3), Kantor, S. (4), Miner, C. (5)

(1) Forest Science Delivery Extension Specialist, Oregon State University and USDA PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, Janean.Creighton@oregonstate.edu, (2) Area Extension Educator-Forestry, University of Idaho, 1808 North 3rd Street, Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814, cschnepf@uidaho.edu, (3) Extension Forester, Oregon State University, Columbia and Washington Counties, 505 N Columbia River Hwy., St. Helens, OR 97051, Amy.Grotta@oregonstate.edu, (3) Associate in Research, Washington State University, Center for Sustaining Ag. and Natural Resources, 2606 W. Pioneer, Puyallup, WA 98371, kantors@wsu.edu, (4) Assistant Station Director, USFS Pacific Northwest Research Station, 333 SW First Avenue, Portland. OR 97204, clminer@fs.fed.us  

Family forest landowners control over 60% of the private forest land in the United States. Little is known regarding the level of knowledge and understanding family forestland owners have regarding global climate change (GCC) and the potential impacts on how they manage their forests. A needs assessment is currently under way to determine the perceptions, understanding, and educational needs of private forest landowners in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) regarding the impacts of global climate change (GCC) on western forests. When asked what they knew of climate change and their questions and/or concerns regarding the issue, almost all of the participants expressed frustration over deciphering what they considered the “good science” from the “bad science.” They felt overwhelmed by the complexities of the issue and were uncertain as to how to determine the validity of the scientific information they received. With regards to their specific questions about climate change and the kind of information they would like to receive, a few topics were common in most groups, including information on carbon credits, recommendations on what to plant now to prepare for the future, impacts of climate change on local conditions, and help deciphering the available science and determining what is valid and credible. During discussions, it was clear that for many participants this was an emotionally charged issue and a political one as well. The issues and concerns surfacing from the discussions indicate that when designing educational programs on climate change, it may be necessary to view it as a controversial issue and understand that strong feelings regarding climate change might serve as a barrier for some individuals to participate.

*The results presented in this poster represent findings from preliminary studies.  

ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE FOREST VEGETATION SIMULATOR

Crookston, N.L. (1), Rehfeldt, G.E. (2), Dixon, G.E. (3), Weiskittel, A.R. (4)

(1) and (2) Forest and Woodland Ecosystems, Rocky Mountain Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, 1221 South Main, Moscow, ID 83843 ncrookston@fs.fed.us (3) Retired, formerly Forest Management Service Center, U.S. Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (4) School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, ME

To simulate stand-level impacts of climate change, predictors in the widely used Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) were adjusted to account for expected climate effects. This was accomplished by (1) adding functions that link mortality and regeneration of species to climate variables expressing climatic suitability, (2) constructing a function linking site index to climate and using it to modify growth rates, and (3) adding functions accounting for changing growth rates due to climate-induced genetic responses. For three climatically diverse landscapes, simulations were used to explore the change in species composition and tree growth that should accompany climate change during the 21st century. The simulations illustrated the changes in forest composition that could accompany climate change. Projections were the most sensitive to mortality, as the loss of trees of a dominant species heavily influenced stand dynamics. While additional work is needed on fundamental plant-climate relationships, this work incorporates climatic effects into FVS to produce a new model called Climate-FVS. This model provides a tool for managers to incorporate climate change impacts in forest plans.

WEST-WIDE MICROCLIMATE SAMPLING NETWORK AND FINE-SCALE CLIMATE PREDICTION

Cushman, S.A. * (1), Holden, Z.A. (2), Moisen, G. (3), Littell, J. (4)

(1) RMRS, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 scushman@fs.fed.us (2) USFS Northern Region, Missoula, MT, (3) RMRS, Ogden, UT, (4) University of Washington Climate Impacts Group, Seattle, WA

Global climate is expected to change rapidly over the next century, affecting forest ecosystems both directly by altering biophysical conditions and indirectly through changing disturbance regimes. Changes in biophysical conditions could lead to species replacement in communities and latitudinal and altitudinal migrations. These changes will be accelerated and directed by climate-driven changes in fire and insect disturbance regimes. Understanding the relationships between microclimate across complex mountain topography, species distributions, and disturbance regimes is the foundation for effective ecosystem restoration and adaptation in the context of climate change. The goal of this project is to obtain massive spatial sampling of microclimate, tree genetics, tree growth, and regeneration at approximately 3,000 locations across the Rocky Mountain west.  By co-locating microclimate sampling and collection of genetic data, we will be able to model geneflow and local adaptation of conifer trees to climate. This in turn will allow us to use GCM forecasts of climate change to predict future species migrations and evolution of ecotypic variation. Co-locating microclimate sampling with measurements of tree distribution, regeneration, and growth will allow us to produce sophisticated ecological models to predict species niche structure and how climate change may affect species distribution and performance.

DESCRIPTION OF PRE- AND POST-TREATMENT MONITORING OF WUI COMMUNITY FUEL REDUCTION PROJECTS TO CREATE FIRE RESILIENCY

De Lasaux, Michael

Natural Resources Advisor, 208 Fairground Road, Quincy, CA 95971, mjdelasaux@ucdavis.edu

The Fire Safe Council of Plumas County, California, has conducted over 19 community fuel reduction projects to create more resilient forests in the wildland-urban interface totaling more than 2,500 acres at a cost of over $2.3 million. The University of California Cooperative Extension has conducted pre- and post-treatment monitoring in seven of the communities. The monitoring is focused on assessing stand structure, ladder fuel, surface fuel, canopy cover, and project economics. Each monitoring plot also includes pre- and post-treatment photographs. The monitoring information will be used to model fire behavior. A goal of the monitoring is to develop educational materials for parcel owners who are contemplating fuel reduction treatment.

WOOD ENERGY ROADMAP

Deneke, F.J.* Forestry Staff Specialist, 25x25 Renewable Energy Initiative, 265 West Soaring Avenue, Prescott, AZ 86301 fjdeneke@yahoo.com

In recent years, biomass, biofuels, bioenergy, biopower, and bioproducts have captured the interest and attention of citizens, interest groups, and policymakers as the United States strives to reduce its use of imported petroleum products. Many wholeheartedly promote woody biomass as a superb alternative energy feedstock to accomplish a litany of goals: energy security, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, job opportunity, rural development, etc. Some denounce the use of wood for energy as a source of potential harm to forest resources. On one hand, forests that are managed sustainably can have a desirable and significant role in a renewable energy future. On the other hand, too rapid expansion of wood to energy could have negative social and environmental consequences. Public policy initiatives to address energy production and climate change often overlook or misrepresent the role that the nation's forests can play in addressing these concerns and can lead to potential unintended consequences on our nation’s private and public forest lands and the multiple economic and environmental benefits they provide. Currently, we are not achieving anywhere near the full potential of our forests, private or public, to provide energy, wood products, and environmental services. Environmental services these forests provide will certainly degrade unless there are markets that provide economic incentives for forest landowners and managers to invest in and to manage their land and maintain it as forest. Forests will play a key role in mitigating climate change and providing for our domestic energy needs.  However, this requires a thorough, thoughtful, and science-based approach in order to balance woody biomass use for energy with the economic health of existing wood products industries and the health, vibrancy, and resiliency of the forest resource. In October 2009, the 25x25 Alliance formed a diverse Wood-to-Energy Work Group composed of representatives from landowner groups, professional forestry organizations, environmental organizations, traditional forest industries, emerging renewable energy industries, and academia to identify and explore important issues surrounding the use of wood for renewable energy and to develop a strategic roadmap for the use of wood for bioenergy and traditional forest products while sustaining the health and productivity of America’s forest resources. This National Wood-to-Energy Roadmap is the product of the 25x25 Work Group discussions over the past 18 months: identifying, understanding, and deliberating the issues; developing a vision; and setting a course to achieve the proper use of our forest resources for bioenergy while still meeting the demands for other goods, values, and benefits desired by the American people present and future.

USING PHENOLOGY AS A TOOL FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

Enquist, C.A.F.* (1),  Weltzin, J.F. (2)

(1) Science Coordinator, The Wildlife Society and USA National Phenology Network, National Coordinating Office, The University of Arizona, 1955 East 6th Street, Tucson, AZ  85721, cenquist@email.arizona.edu, (2) Executive Director, USA National Phenology Network, National Coordinating Office, The University of Arizona, 1955 East 6th Street, Tucson, AZ  85721, jweltzin@usgs.gov

Changes in the timing of phenological events—such as leafing, migrations, and insect emergence—have been called a "globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts" on plants and animals. Not surprisingly, phenology is now widely accepted as a robust ecological indicator of the impacts of climate change. For example, climate-induced changes in phenology have been linked to shifts in the timing of allergy seasons and cultural festivals, increases in wildfire activity and pest outbreaks, shifts in species distributions, declines in the abundance of native species, the spread of invasive species, and changes in carbon cycling in forests. The breadth of these impacts highlights the potential for phenological data and related information to inform management and policy decisions across sectors. This poster focuses on using phenology as a tool for resource management and climate change adaptation. It also describes the activities of the USA National Phenology Network, a national science and monitoring initiative focused on understanding and communicating how plants, animals, and landscapes respond to environmental variability and climate change. Specifically, we describe how phenology monitoring can be used to facilitate the achievement of numerous natural resource management objectives. These range from conventional adaptive management and emerging climate change adaptation strategies to education and public outreach. We first do this by introducing a framework for acquiring and using phenology data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We address the concept of "climate-smart" monitoring and identify the key metrics for monitoring the ecological response to climate change. We then show how these data can be used in vulnerability assessments and contribute to our understanding of ecological processes and carbon dynamics. In turn, we discuss how these efforts inform management planning and implementation, particularly in terms of identifying invasive species, fire, and biodiversity conservation and management actions. Finally, we highlight how a new, off-the-shelf phenology monitoring program, Nature’s Notebook, is not only operationalizing systematic data collection at protected areas across the United States. but already is cultivating the public’s natural and climate science literacy by using a participatory citizen science approach.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OLD PONDEROSA PINE TREE GROWTH, RESTORATION TREATMENTS, AND CLIMATE IN NORTHERN ARIZONA

Erickson, C.C. (1), Waring, K.M.* (2)

(1) Graduate Student, School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, chriscerickson@gmail.com, (2) Assistant Professor, School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, kristen.waring@nau.edu

Between 1870 and the present, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands across the southwestern United States have been increasingly stressed by increased stand density and decreased water and nutrient availability. Climate change predictions indicate a warmer and drier Southwest, with increasing drought frequency. It is unclear how the combination of stand conditions and drought affect growth and survival of old ponderosa pine trees, important components of the landscape. At Mt. Trumbull in northern Arizona, a landscape-scale ponderosa pine ecosystem restoration project, involving thinning and burning treatments, was established in 1995, beside an untreated control. Restoration-style treatments in southwestern ponderosa pine forests usually improve residual tree growth; however, old pine mortality has been observed at elevated levels at Mt. Trumbull. Five years post-treatment, old pines at the stand-scale were over twice as likely to die in treated versus untreated areas. Our goals were to investigate landscape-scale growth and mortality of old pine trees at Mt. Trumbull in relation to treatment and climate. We measured old pines on 52, 0.1 ha permanent plots established pre-treatment and 30 non-permanent 1 ha plots in each treatment type to assess mortality and tree and site characteristics. Data collection included assessments of basic tree characteristics, tree condition, and aboveground competition. A paired live-dead tree study was also implemented to assess growth of live and dead trees in response to treatment and climate. We found significant differences in precipitation, temperature, elevation, and aspect between the treated and control areas, indicating a warmer, drier control area. Old pine mortality has decreased in the treated area and increased in the control since 2003. Old pines in the treated area responded positively in growth to treatments. All old trees grew slowly during drought years; however, old trees in the treated area grew faster following three recent drought years than old trees in the control. We found that growth of live old trees in the control was similar to that of dead trees across the landscape, indicating that restoration treatments may be critical in maintaining old ponderosa pine trees in the landscape, particularly under future climate change and increasing drought frequency.

ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN FOREST COMMUNITIES IN LATIN AMERICA THROUGH ADVOCACY COALITIONS

Flora, C.B.* (1), Flora, J.L. (2), Ashwill, M.S. (3)

(1) Distinguished Professor, Department of Sociology, 103 East Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 cflora@iastate.edu (2) Extension Community Sociologist and Professor, Department of Sociology, 103 East Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070, (3) Social Development and Climate Change, Sustainable Development Department, Latin America Caribbean Region, The World Bank, Washington, DC

Global warming and human-induced land use changes have impacted vulnerable communities in Latin America. We conducted comparative studies of vulnerable communities in Argentina (2), Paraguay (2), Bolivia (2), Peru (2), and the Dominican Republic (2), examining changes in community capitals of natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial, and built capital over time. We also analyzed the degree to which different parts of the community viewed these changes as simple cyclic weather conditions versus more permanent climate change. We highlight the individual and collective adaptations of these communities in response to changes in the forests as well as which capitals were identified as needing intervention in response to the climate change. A number of interventions actually increase vulnerability to climate change, by providing perverse incentives that encourage. We examine the potential of forming alliances with market, state, and civil society organizations for collective adaptation to climate change and the impact of those adaptations for mitigation. 

TREE MORTALITY IN DROUGHT-STRESSED MIXED-CONIFER AND PONDEROSA PINE FORESTS, ARIZONA

Ganey, J.L., Iniguez*, J.M., Iniguez, A.R., Vojta, S.C., Huebner, D.P.

U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, AZ jiniguez@fs.fed.us

We monitored tree mortality in southwestern mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) forests from 1997 to 2007, a period of severe, global-climate-change type drought in this area. The number of trees dying over a five-year period increased by over 200% in mixed-conifer forest and by 74% in ponderosa pine forest from 1997-2002 to 2002-2007. Most mortality was attributable to a suite of forest insects, mediated by drought stress. Mortality was pervasive, occurring on 100 and 98% of 53 mixed-conifer and 60 ponderosa pine plots (1 ha each) sampled, respectively, but extent of mortality was spatially variable in both forest types. Median mortality rates from 2002 to 2007 were approximately 2.0% yr-1 in mixed-conifer forest (range = 0 - 28.5%) and 0.4% yr-1 in ponderosa pine forest (range = 0 - 13.6%). Mortality rates generally were not strongly related to stand density. Mortality was nonrandom with respect to availability of tree size classes and species. Proportions of trees dying were greatest in the largest size classes, particularly in mixed-conifer forest, where mortality in the largest size class exceeded 22% from 2002 to 2007. Proportional mortality of all species was greater in mixed-conifer than in ponderosa pine forest. Mortality in mixed-conifer forest was particularly pronounced for quaking aspen (85%) and white fir (28%), the least drought-tolerant species present. At current median mortality rates, over 60% of currently standing trees would die in mixed-conifer forests in the next 50 years. These results provide an early glimpse of how these forest types are likely to respond to predicted climate patterns and resulting altered disturbance regimes in the southwestern United States.

GENETIC VARIATION IN PRODUCTIVITY OF RIPARIAN PLANTS: ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH RESTORATION AND ASSISTED MIGRATION

Grady, K.C.* (1), Ferrier, S.M. (2), Whitham, T.G. (2), Kolb, T.E. (1), Allan, G.J. (2)

(1) School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011, kevincgrady@gmail.com, (2) Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011, sharon.ferrier@nau.edu, (3) Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 thomas.whitham@nau.edu, (4) School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011, tom.kolb@nau.edu, (5) Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011, gery.allan@nau.edu

We examined the hypothesis that genotypic variation among populations of commonly co-occurring obligate phreatophytic trees (Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii) and shrubs (S. exigua) regulate aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). We used a provenance-based trial in which replicated genotypes from populations varying in mean annual temperature were transplanted to a common garden adjacent to the Lower Colorado River in southeastern California. The garden environment represented an extreme maximum temperature for the study species. Four major findings emerged: 1) Population ANPP decreased linearly as mean annual maximum temperature (MAMT) transfer distance increased for both P. fremontii (r2 = 0.68) and S. gooddingii (r2 = 0.29), while it did not change for S. exigua; 2) populations with similar MAMT to that of the common garden were 1.5 and 1.2 times more productive than populations with 5.0 °C MAMT transfer distances for P. fremontii and S. goodingii, respectively; 3) variation in regression slopes among species for the relationship between ANPP and MAMT indicate species-specific responses to temperature; 4) genotypic variation in ANPP was significant both across and within populations of all species with estimates of broad-sense heritability (H2) across populations of 0.11, 0.13, and 0.10 for P. fremontii, S. gooddingii and S. exigua, respectively, and within population H2 ranging from 0.00 to 0.25, 0.05 to 0.30, and 0.04 to 0.21, respectively. These results indicate that ANPP is a heritable, useful trait for assessing suitability of genotypes for warm climates. Assisted migration and restoration programs in southwestern riparian areas should include both vigorously growing local genotypes and productive genotypes from warmer environments if maintenance of productivity is desired in the warmer climate of the future.

CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE FRAMEWORK PROJECT – LESSONS LEARNED AND EXPANSION

Handler, S.D.* (1), Butler, P.R. (2), Janowiak, M.K. (3), Swanston, C.W. (4)

(1) School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, prbutler@mtu.edu, (2) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, sdhandler@fs.fed.us, (3) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, mjanowiak02@fs.fed.us, (4) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, cswanston@fs.fed.us

The Climate Change Response Framework Project examines landscape management activities to help adapt forests to new and changing climate conditions as well as mitigate greenhouse gas emissions responsible for climate change. Major project components include: (1) assessment: assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities and potential for carbon sequestration; (2) partnerships: engaging and establishing partnerships across shared landscapes to enhance communication and even coordinate responses; (3) science applications and needs review: reaching out to regional and national science communities to examine assessments and discuss projected regional climate impacts and potential responses; and (4) adaptation planning and implementation: synthesizing relevant information and building and testing tools to help land managers integrate adaptation activities into existing management processes. This project was launched in northern Wisconsin, where the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest served as a pilot landscape and was instrumental in providing expertise and testing ideas and processes. Products and activities of the northern Wisconsin pilot included an Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment and Synthesis, a Preliminary Mitigation Assessment, a Shared Landscapes Initiative and multi-institutional Workgroup, a Science Applications and Needs Review, and a tools document called Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers. Additionally, a Lessons Learned document summarized lessons from throughout the project in three broad categories: (1) organizational lessons that provide insight on coordinating a multi-institutional project with many collaborators, (2) communication and collaboration lessons that provide insight on sharing information with and delivering messages to various internal and external audiences, and (3) overarching lessons that reflect the challenges and opportunities for addressing and responding to climate change. The project is now being adapted to at least five additional National Forests and their partners in several states, building on the lessons, experience, and products of the original effort.

CLIMATE ADAPTATION KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE (CAKE): YOUR ONLINE ADAPTATION DESTINATION

Hansen, L.J. (1), Gregg, R.M. (2), Hitt, J.L.* (3)

(1) EcoAdapt, P.O. Box 11195, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110, Lara@EcoAdapt.org, (2) EcoAdapt, P.O. Box 11195, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110,Rachel@EcoAdapt.org, (3) EcoAdapt, P.O. Box 11195, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110, Jessica@EcoAdapt.org

The Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) is intended to support individuals interested in developing the discipline of adaptation to climate change by facilitating the identification of important information and its accessibility; building a community via an interactive online platform; connecting practitioners to share knowledge and strategies; and networking with other relevant materials around the Web. This poster will showcase the different components of CAKE, including the availability of a georeferenced database of adaptation case studies, a directory of adaptation-interested people, a virtual library of resources that can support adaptation efforts, advice for conservation and information exchange, and links to tools and data that are available to support and build the adaptation community. We invite you to learn from and join CAKE.

CARBON SEQUESTRATION, LANDOWNER COMPENSATION AND MANAGEMENT CHOICES IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

Henderson, J.E.* (1), Rousseau, R.J. (2)

(1) Assistant Extension, Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, Box 9681, Mississippi State, MS, jhenderson@cfr.msstate.edu, (2) Associate Extension Professor, Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, Box 9681, Mississippi State, MS, rrousseau@cfr.msstate.edu

Carbon contract returns to landowners may alter the financial attractiveness of different management regimes for loblolly pine. Two carbon contract cycles are evaluated for three average sites in the lower coastal plain, upper coastal plain, and the piedmont.  For each region, two management regimes are considered: (1) no thinning management regime with two sequential 15-year carbon contracts and (2) one thinning management regime with one 15-year carbon contract. Timber volume projections and sequestered carbon are estimated using the North Carolina State University Managed Pine Plantation Simulator. Each management regime is evaluated over a range of discount rates and sequestered carbon and timber product prices. The results will allow landowners in the southeastern United States to evaluate the value of carbon relative to traditional timber products and if those returns are sufficient to alter the financially optimal management regime for loblolly pine.

POLICIES FOR ADAPTATION IN FORESTRY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

Hoberg, G.H. (1), Innes, J.L. (2), Nelson, H.N. (3), Perez, D.P.* (4)

(1) Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Forest Science Centre, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6R 2B7, Canada george.hoberg@ubc.ca, (2) Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Forest Science Centre, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6R 2B7, Canada, john.innes@ubc.ca, (3) Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Forest Science Centre, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6R 2B7, Canada, Harry.Nelson@ubc.ca, (4) Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Forest Science Centre, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6R 2B7, Canada dperez@interchange.ubc.ca

Sustainable forest management under the uncertainty of climate change requires actions to reduce ecosystem and management vulnerabilities by increasing the resilience and adaptive capacity of both.  This requires innovative policy that supports forest planning that looks to the future and facilitates active adaptive management. The Kamloops Future Forest Strategy project in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has identified a number of adaptive actions to reduce climate change vulnerabilities, including: a) increasing the flexibility in the delineation of large habitat reserves (e.g., old-growth management areas) and b) increasing the diversity of tree species and assemblages utilized during post-harvest reforestation. Under climate change, these are important strategies for conserving biodiversity and increasing resilience, yet they raise important questions about the institutional, organizational, social, political, and economic feasibility of implementation. This project seeks to identify and evaluate policy alternatives to implement the aforementioned recommendations in the Kamloops Land and Resource Management Plan area of BC's Southern Interior region. The overarching goal is to make sound policy recommendations so that adaptive actions for landscape-level biodiversity management under climate change can be translated into operational realities on the ground.

TOOLS FOR FOREST CARBON ESTIMATION AND MANAGEMENT

Hoover, C.M. *

U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824, choover@fs.fed.us

With the increasing importance of the role of forests in the global carbon cycle and growing interest in carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service, land managers need access to tools for forest carbon estimation and management. The U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station has developed and deployed a variety of tools that provide estimates of forest carbon stocks at various spatial scales, from a stand or landscape to the conterminous United States. All tools are freely available for download and use, and have different features and capabilities. This poster gives an overview of the background and features of some of the most commonly used tools, including COLE, the Carbon On-Line Estimator; CCT, the Carbon Calculation Tool; the FVS Carbon Reports, and others. Additional resources available from the Northern Research Station’s Carbon Tools webpage will also be highlighted.

VALIDATING EMPIRICAL BIOCLIMATIC MODEL PREDICTIONS OF CLIMATE IMPACTS: SPRUCE DECLINE IN NORTHERN ARIZONA

Ironside, K.E.* (1), Vankat, J.L. (2), Cole, K.L. (3), Cobb, N.S. (4), Truettner, C.M. (5)

(1) Landscape Ecologist, Northern Arizona University, Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, P.O. Box 6077, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, Kirsten.Ironside@nau.edu, (2) Professor Emeritus, Miami University, Department of Botany, Oxford, OH 45054 and Senior Research Ecologist, Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, P.O. Box 6077, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, vankatjl@muohio.edu, (3) Ecologist, Northern Arizona University, Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, P.O. Box 6077, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, Ken.Cole@nau.edu, (4) Director, Northern Arizona University, Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, P.O. Box 6077, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, Neil.Cobb@nau.edu, (5) Graduate Student, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6077, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, cmt242@nau.edu

The importance of climate in determining the distribution of vegetation is well established, yet depiction of these relationships for forecasting potential impacts of climate change varies among studies. Over the last 20 years, various empirical models of species bioclimatic envelops have been developed, primarily for forecasting, yet little research has been conducted to evaluate their predictive ability. These correlative techniques have also been criticized for not providing insight into relationships between the occurrence of species and measures of climate. We compared a bioclimatic model’s predictions developed to describe suitability of climate and changes in spruce (Picea engelmannii + P. pungens) on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park on the Kaibab Plateau. Permanent plots show spruce density and basal area decreased in this region between 1984 and 2010. During this time, there were significant trends in increased temperature and decreased precipitation that suggest recent climatic trends have reduced suitability for this species on the Kaibab Plateau. This is consistent with model projections for the near future, both with changes in climate predicted by a General Circulation Model (GCM) and the predicted response of spruce in this portion of its range. The consistency between the changes in the permanent plots and the model projections suggests the bioclimatic model is able to predict changes in suitability that translate into changes in species occurrence.

FOREST ADAPTATION RESOURCES: CLIMATE CHANGE TOOLS AND APPROACHES FOR LAND MANAGERS

Janowiak, M.K. * (1), Butler, P.R.(2), Swanston, C.W. (3), Handler, S.D. (4)

(1) School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, prbutler@mtu.edu, (2) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, sdhandler@fs.fed.us, (3) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, mjanowiak02@fs.fed.us, (4) Northern Research Station, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, cswanston@fs.fed.us

The forests of northern Wisconsin are a defining feature of the region’s landscape, and these ecosystems, along with others, are expected to undergo a number of changes as a result of a changing climate. Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers contains a set of resources to help managers incorporate climate change considerations into management and devise management tactics that can be used to respond to climate change. As part of the larger Climate Change Response Framework Project (CCRFP) in northern Wisconsin, this document incorporates information from assessments, partnership efforts, and discussions between scientists and managers in order to integrate research and management in the context of climate change. Four interrelated chapters help forest owners and managers in northern Wisconsin adapt forests to new and changing conditions and sustain healthy ecosystems over the long term, including: (1) a description of the overarching process of the CCRFP, which is being expanded to other landscapes; (2) a “menu” of adaptation strategies and approaches for forests in northern Wisconsin; (3) a process for incorporating climate change considerations into forest management planning and activities, as well as an Adaptation Workbook to assist land managers in developing on‐the‐ground management tactics to adapt forest ecosystems to climate change; and (4) two illustrations of how the adaptation strategies and approaches can be used with the Adaptation Workbook in real-world situations.

WOOD ENERGY COALITION IN MARYLAND

Kays, J.S.*(1), J. Ackerly (2)

Natural Resource Extension Specialist, University of Maryland Extension, Western Maryland Research & Education Center, 18330 Keedysville Road, Keedysville, MD 21756, jkays@umd.edu

The Maryland Wood Energy Coalition is composed of representatives of state agencies, university extension, non-profits, and businesses committed to increasing the adoption of high-efficiency, low-emission wood energy technologies that meet Maryland air quality standards. The coalition was organized in April 2010 by University of Maryland Extension to overcome the lack of policy and programs that support wood energy in the state. It coincided with the development of biomass harvesting guidelines and an in-depth study of the potential for wood energy generation in the state by the Pinchot Institute. The coalition believes the greatest potential for wood energy in Maryland is achieved through small to medium-sized commercial applications for government, schools, and businesses as well as residential thermal applications. Part of this effort is the development of an educational program to help achieve this goal. This presentation will highlight the challenges facing adoption of wood energy and what has been achieved through the coalition, opportunities for the future, and how it can serve as a model for states lacking a responsible direction for wood energy policy.

EXTENDING CURRENT SCIENCE ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE TO FOREST MANAGEMENT AGENCIES IN THE TAHOE BASIN

Kocher, S.D.*

Natural Resources Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, El Dorado County, 1061 3rd Street, South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150, sdkocher@ucdavis.edu Kocher, S.D.*

Measurable effects of climate change have been documented in numerous montane systems throughout the world, including the Sierra Nevada. Although uncertainty remains in predicting how much change will occur and what outcomes will be, scientists have moved beyond documenting and predicting the effects of climate change to developing approaches for adaptation by incorporating climate science into land and resource planning and management.

University of California Cooperative Extension hosted a two-day symposium on climate change in the Tahoe Basin in collaboration with the Tahoe Science Consortium and the USFS Pacific Southwest Research Station. The goal was to disseminate research-based information on climate change impacts and adaptations to land managers and the public in the Tahoe Basin. Managers and staff of land and resource management agencies, regulatory agencies, local government, and representatives of environmental and business organizations, consultants, and scientists were invited to explore the strategic and conceptual framework for incorporating climate into land and resource management in the Tahoe Basin, and discuss plausible local adaptation at the symposium on March 17-18, 2009, in Incline Village, Nevada. Presentations summarized the likely effects of climate change on Sierra Nevada meteorology and hydrology and the implications for forests including effects on wildfire risks, fuels reduction strategies to avoid high severity fire and reduce carbon emissions, and sensitive species. A concluding panel of decision makers in local management and regulatory agencies and environmental groups was asked to react to the information presented and describe how it would affect their management decisions. Day two of the conference focused on impacts to aquatic systems at Lake Tahoe and asked for audience input into a draft climate action plan. Over 150 people attended. 92% of attendees said the presentations helped them to understand the effects of climate change and the current state of knowledge. 83% rated the presentations as excellent or very good, and 68% agreed that the event “will help us move forward to develop strategies for adaptation to climate change.”

CLIMATE CHANGE WORKSHOPS: TARGETING THE PROFESSIONAL FORESTERS AND NATURAL RESOURCE LAND MANAGERS OF MINNESOTA

Kroenke, M.I.*

Program Director, Sustainable Forests Education Cooperative, University of Minnesota, College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, Cloquet Forestry Center, 175 University Road, Cloquet, MN 55720, mkroenke@umn.edu

Climate change has been an emphasis within programs delivered by the UMN Sustainable Forests Education Cooperative in 2009 and 2010. Presenters included Lee Frelich, Research Associate, UMN; Peter Reich, Regents Professor and Distinguished Professor, UMN; and Carrie Pike, Research Fellow, UMN Department of Forest Ecology. The titles of the programs were "Forests and Climate Change: The Minnesota Picture and Forests" and "Climate Change Part II: Management Implications." The agenda topics included Science of Climate Change, Current Evidence of Change and Projected Future Climates, Climate, Tree Ranges and Biomes, Climate and CO2 Effects on Physiology and Productivity, Multiple Impacts of Climate, Insects, Disease, Invasive Species, Deer, and Disturbance on Forests, Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Forests, Extreme Events and Thresholds: Storms, Fires, Droughts and Herbivores, Tree Genetics and Climate Change and Ecosystem Classification and Analogs. Conclusions and Implications: Ninety-eight foresters and natural resource land managing professionals from Minnesota and one University of Wisconsin DNR person attended the workshops. 41% of the attendees represented the National Forests, 29% represented Minnesota DNR, 6% (each) represented county land departments and consulting foresters. The remaining participants included Soil and Water Conservation Districts, industry, tribal, university, The Nature Conservancy, Minnesota Forest Resources Council, USF&WS, and Wisconsin DNR. The evaluations showed a high degree of satisfaction with the content, delivery, and knowledge gained from the programs. Participants requested future climate change programs on "Adaptive Management" and "Field Applications" to help prepare for future climate change impacts.

MANAGING UNCERTAINTY IN CLIMATE-DRIVEN ECOLOGICAL MODELS TO INFORM ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE 

Littell, J.S. (1), Kerns, B.K. (2), McKenzie, D. (3), Cushman, S. (4), Shaw, C.G. (5)

(1) Center for Science in the Earth System Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington jlittell@uw.edu, (2) Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center, Pacific Northwest Research Station, U.S. Forest Service (current address: Corvallis Forestry Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service), (3) Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Lab, USDA Forest Service, (4) Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, (5) Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center, Pacific Northwest Research Station, U.S. Forest Service

The impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems are likely to require changes in forest planning and natural resource management. Changes in tree growth, disturbance extent and intensity, and eventually species distributions are expected. In natural resource management and planning, ecosystem models are typically used to provide a “best estimate” about how forests might work in the future and thus guide decision making. Ecosystem models can be used to develop forest management strategies that anticipate these changes, but limited experience with models and model output is a challenge for managers in thinking about how to address potential effects of climate change. What do decision makers need to know about climate models, ecological models used for impacts assessments, and the uncertainty in model projections in order to use model output in strategies for adaptation to climate change? We present approaches for understanding and reducing the uncertainty associated with modeling the effects of climate change on ecosystems, focusing on multi-model approaches to clarify the strengths and limits of projections and minimize vulnerability to undesirable consequences of climate change. Scientific uncertainties about changes in climate or projections of their impacts on resources do not present fundamental barriers to management and adaptation to climate change. Instead, these uncertainties can be controlled by characterizing their effects on models and future projections from those models. There is uncertainty in decision making that does not derive just from the complex interaction of climate and ecosystem models, but in how modeling is integrated with other aspects of the decision environment such as choice of objectives, monitoring, and assessment. Adaptive management provides a hedge against uncertainty, such that climate and ecosystem models can inform decision making.

DOUGLAS-FIR PRODUCTIVITY AND NEAR-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE

Magalska, L.E * (1), Howe, G.T. (2), Maguire, D. A. (3)

(1) Graduate Research Assistant, Oregon State University, Department of Forest Ecosystems & Society, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, lauren.magalska@oregonstate.edu (2) Associate Professor, Oregon State University, Department of Forest Ecosystems & Society, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, glenn.howe@oregonstate.edu (3) Professor, Oregon State University, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources and Management, 204 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR  97331, doug.maguire@oregonstate.edu

Foresters care about site productivity and stem quality in Douglas-fir plantations for many reasons. Site productivity, which is commonly measured as site index, is directly related to harvest profitability. After volume, stem form is the most important factor determining tree value. The empirical growth and yield models and mechanistic models currently available to predict site productivity and stem quality have numerous limitations, including the inability to make predictions on non-forested land, and predictions of future growth based on past growth. The latter is especially problematic when considering near-term climate change. However, site productivity can also be predicted using site characteristics. Previous research indicates that climate, soils, and topographic site characteristics are all related to site productivity. Similarly, site characteristics have also been used to predict other important forest management considerations, such as adaptive traits and disease risk. I have identified the site characteristics that explain the most variation in site productivity and stem form. The identification of these site characteristics allows predictions to be made for both forested and non-forested lands as well as understanding how near-term climate change may affect both productivity and stem form. 

INTEGRATING RESEARCH, EDUCATION AND EXTENSION FOR SOUTHERN PINE CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION

Martin, T.A.*(1), Fox, T.R. (2), Monroe, M.C. (3), Peter, G.F. (4)

(1) School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, tamartin@ufl.edu, (2) Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, trfox@vt.edu, (3) School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, mcmonroe@ufl.edu, (4) School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, gfpeter@ufl.edu

Over the last 50 years, cooperative research on planted southern pine management among southeastern United States universities, government agencies, and forest industry has developed and facilitated the widespread implementation of improved genetic and silvicultural technology. The impact of the regional research cooperatives is difficult to overstate, with current members managing 55% of the privately owned planted pine forestland, and producing 95% of the pine seedlings planted each year. Our team includes the eight major forestry cooperative research programs, scientists from nine land-grant and three 1890s institutions, the U.S. Forest Service, and climate modeling and adaptation specialists associated with the multi-state Southeastern Climate Consortium and state climate offices. Our goal is to create and disseminate the knowledge that enables landowners to harness planted pine forest productivity to mitigate atmospheric CO2; more efficiently use nitrogen and other fertilizer inputs; and adapt their forest management to increase resilience in the face of changing climate. We will integrate our team's infrastructure and expertise to 1) develop breeding, genetic deployment, and innovative management systems to increase C sequestration and resilience to changing climate of planted southern pine forests; 2) understand interactive effects of policy, biology, and climate change on sustainable management; 3) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private industrial and non-industrial landowners; and 4) educate a diverse cross section of the public about the relevance of forests, forest management, and climate change. These efforts will enable our stakeholders to enhance the productivity of southern pine forests, while maintaining social, economic, and ecological sustainability.

DESIGNING EFFECTIVE FOREST RESTORATION TREATMENTS TO AUGMENT SNOW WATER

Masek Lopez, S.R.* (1), Heffelfinger, S.A. (2), Decker, R. (3), Springer, A.E. (4)

(1) Watershed Restoration Research Specialist, School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, P.O. Box 4099, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, (2) Engineering Graduate Student, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, (3) Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 15600, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, (4) Geology Professor and Director, School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, P.O. Box 4099, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011

Previous and recent studies indicate that ponderosa pine forest restoration treatments may be designed to improve snow water content and in turn benefit soil moisture, plant vigor, groundwater recharge, and streamflow. In northern Arizona, snow hydrology studies are under way and being planned as part of research and monitoring efforts associated with the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI), a landscape-scale forest restoration effort that will span 2.4 million acres over three decades. We evaluated previous snow hydrology research in the Southwest and throughout the West to identify key elements in the relationship between forest pattern and snow water equivalents (SWE). Research has shown that mature ponderosa pine forest is highly dependent on soil moisture derived from snowmelt and that by decreasing forest density, SWE may be increased. Also, by strategically placing and sizing forest openings, snowpack is more likely to be retained until the spring snowmelt period, which is critical for soil water replenishment and groundwater recharge. Recommendations are made to establish snow hydrology experimental plots within 4FRI treatment areas to determine optimum forest patterns to improve snow water and soil moisture. Because global climate change predictions indicate the Southwest will become warmer and drier with shorter winters and earlier springs, careful management of forest pattern is critical for preserving snow water that is essential for sustaining ponderosa pine forest.

PREDICTING FOREST-SPECIFIC CLIMATE CHANGE USING DOWNSCALED CLIMATE MODELS

McIntosh, M.S.* (1), Juchs, S.A. (2)

(1) Professor, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, mmcintos@umd.edu, (2) Graduate Student, Marine, Estuary, and Environmental Science Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, sjuchs@umd.edu

Forests play a major role in mitigation and adaptation strategies for combating climate change. Predicted global changes in temperature and precipitation are being used to develop these strategies, but forests need to be managed on a local scale. Effective planning and management of forests in a changing climate require valid and robust predictions of future climate change that is context-specific since climate changes vary by region. This poster will present downscaled predictions of temperature and precipitation based on three major regional climate change models (WRF, CRCM, and HRM). Each model’s downscaled predicted temperature and precipitation data for the 1990s will be assessed and compared to observed weather station data from stations across Maryland.  Each model’s downscaled predictions for the 2050s that correspond to Maryland’s three physiographic regions will be shown and related to the potential  differing impacts of local climate change on forests depending on geographic location. The goal of the poster is to demonstrate the efficacy of using current regional climate change models to predict local climate change and provide predictions to be used by forest resource managers as a tool for long-range forest management and policy decisions in a changing climate.  

COLLABORATIVE REGIONAL EXTENSION PROGRAMMING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE: LEVERAGING THE CONIFER CAP AFRI GRANT IN THE SOUTH

Megalos,M.A.* (1), Hubbard W.G.* (2), Monroe,M*  (3)  Taylor, E.* (4)

(1) Extension Forestry Specialist & Assistant Extension Professor, North Carolina State University, CB 8008, Raleigh, NC 27695-8008, mark.megalos@ncsu.edu, (2) Southern Regional Extension Forester, 4-402 Forest Resources Building, Warnell School of Forestry & Natural Resources, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, whubbard@uga.edu, (3) Professor, Environmental Education & Extension 347 Newins-Ziegler Hall, P.O. Box 110410, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-mcmonroe@ufl.edu, (4) Professor, Tree Physiology, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida/IFAS, P.O. Box 110410 (mail), 134 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL  32611-0410 tamartin@ufl.edu

The authors are collaborating on a national AFRI grant to  (1) educate the public about the relevance of forests, forest management, and climate change, and (2) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private and industrial landowners. The outcome is for stakeholders to enhance the productivity of southern pine forests while maintaining social, economic, and ecological sustainability. The grant will be used to develop Extension programming that combines regional climate expertise and forest management outreach to deliver knowledge and state-of-the-art information, resources, and management decision support tools to forest landowners, resource managers, and policymakers. Another element is a Climatologist/Forest Extension partnership in which the goal of working together will require substantial interaction between climate scientists and forestry specialists.

REGIONAL EXTENSION APPROACHES TO CLIMATE CHANGE: SOUTHERN CONIFER AFRI GRANT

Megalos,M.A.* (1), Hubbard,W.G.* (2)

(1) Extension Forestry Specialist & Assistant Extension Professor, North Carolina State University, CB 8008, Raleigh, NC 27695-8008, mark.megalos@ncsu.edu, (2) Southern Regional Extension Forester, 4-402 Forest Resources Building, Warnell School of Forestry & Natural Resources, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, whubbard@uga.edu

The authors are collaborating on a national AFRI grant to  (1) educate the public about the relevance of forests, forest management, and climate change, and (2) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private and industrial landowners. The outcome is for stakeholders to enhance the productivity of southern pine forests while maintaining social, economic, and ecological sustainability. Our aim is to develop extension programming that combines regional climate expertise and forest management. We’ll draw upon our expertise in outreach to deliver knowledge and state-of-the-art information, resources, and management decision support tools to forest landowners, resource managers, and policymakers. This will stem from a two-prong effort:

I. Creation of Educational Training Program:

•              PLT module & roll out K-12 research 

•              Teaching internship program

•              Distance class on climate change education

•              Study of graduate student transdisciplinary

•              Train graduates in forest & climate science

II. Extension Climate & Forest Management Program Deliver

•              Rollout website on planted pine climate change mitigation & adaptation;

•              Establish extension/climatologist partnership

•              Assess audience needs

•              Develop materials

•              Educator & Extension Professionals train-the-trainer workshops

•              Roll out open source decision support system & train users

•              Deliver eXtension modules

•              Impacts Assessment

DECIPHERING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Monroe, M. C.* mcmonroe@ufl.edu (1), Oxarart, A. (2)

(1) Professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410, (2) Program Specialist, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410

Perceptions about climate change and global warming have been studied by psychologists and communication experts for many years. Unfortunately, some reports appear to contradict each other; the findings are not always clear. This poster summarizes findings from several recent surveys and provides guidance to extension specialists.

Communication efforts with any audience should begin with understanding what they believe, what they find confusing, what they care about, whom they trust, and what they are willing to do. For the last 20 years, researchers have conducted studies to better understand what the American public believes about global warming and climate change. While most studies are random samples of adults and not specifically targeted to forest landowners, they still offer intriguing insights into what Americans understand about this issue and why. Most studies ask about global warming and then report on perceptions of climate change. It is useful to know which term the public finds most meaningful. Several studies have also reported a demographic split between liberal and conservative respondents. The Six Americas report identified six reliably different groups of Americans who respond to questions about climate change with varying degrees of support. This information is essential for understanding how to think about our audiences. Variations in findings about perceptions of climate change often result from different ways to ask the question. For example, the following questions could reasonably result in different responses from the same individual:

•              Do you believe the earth’s temperature has probably been heating up over the last 100 years?

•              Do you believe the earth’s temperature will become warmer?

•              Are you aware of solid evidence that the earth’s temperature has become warmer?

•              How sure are you that global warming is happening?

These different questions make it hard to compare findings across surveys and make it easy for the people to use survey data for any political stance they wish to support. Interestingly, the ozone hole, aerosol cans, and rockets are blamed for causing global warming. Thankfully, most respondents want to learn more and want children to be taught about climate change in schools. The poster will present summaries of several studies, sort out potential conflicts, offer some explanations about communicating climate change, and provide suggestions for extension specialists as they tackle this topic.

REDD+ IN BRAZIL: DESIGN AND CARBON MODELING OF AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM

Moore*, C.B. (1), Starr*, I. (2),  Ross*, D.C. (3)

(1) Master of Forestry Candidate, Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, campbell.moore@yale.edu (2)  Master of Forestry Candidate, Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, ian.starr@yale.edu (3) Master of Forestry Candidate, Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, david.ross@yale.edu

An agroforestry system utilizing cacao and native hardwood species was designed to provide a pasture restoration strategy with carbon and biodiversity benefits for Para state, Brazil. Multiple development trajectories for the agroforestry system were assessed given the ecological and social constraints of the region. Site suitability in the region of these systems was determined using geospatial analysis. Finally, carbon sequestration of two agroforestry models was evaluated over a 100-year timeline using the CO2 Fix carbon modeling software.

Large formerly forested areas of the central Amazon have been converted to cattle pasture by both small and large landholders. In Para state, Brazil, these pastures often become unproductive in 6 to 8 years and represent a significant loss of the carbon and biodiversity of these former forests. Alternative land use strategies that are economically viable and provide carbon sequestration capacity would be of benefit to the region. A pre-feasibility analysis of shade-grown cacao with native timber species as an agroforestry system for the region was developed and tailored to multiple scenarios of initial site conditions and soil constraints. Following this, a geospatial analysis was used to determine potential pasture sites in the Sao Felix do Xingo region of Para for the agroforestry system. CO2 Fix carbon modeling software was utilized to estimate carbon accrual over 100 years in two different models of the agroforestry system, a permanent agroforestry model, and a model where the system transitioned to secondary forest.  Results indicate that native species agroforestry systems are potentially viable as a means to restore degraded pastures through a REDD+ mechanism.

BIOMASS UTILIZATION IN CENTRAL ARIZONA: HOW DOES STEWARDSHIP CONTRACTING INFLUENCE OPPORTUNITIES?

Nicholls, D.L.*

Forest Products Technologist USDA Forest Service,  Pacific Northwest Research Station Wood Utilization Center 204 Siginaka Way Sitka, AK 99835 USA dlnicholls@fs.fed.us

In 2004, the White Mountain Stewardship Contract became the first such 10-year project on National Forest lands.  During its first 5 years, roughly 50,000 acres have been treated (or in progress). In this research synthesis, we examine biomass utilization during this first 5-year period and consider future opportunities. 

The softwood forests of central Arizona are part of a unique ecosystem that includes the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in North America. However, the 2002 the Rodeo-Chediski fire impacted this ecosystem by burning more than 1,760 km2 of forests and destroying close to 500 homes. Two years later, the White Mountain Stewardship Contract (WMSC) became the first 10-year stewardship contract on National Forest lands. During its first 5 years, roughly 35,000 acres have been mechanically treated, with more than 14,000 acres in progress. The WMSC has provided many community benefits including increased employment, small business development, enhanced recreational opportunities, and reduced wildfire risk. There has also been broad-based community support for these restoration projects. Important ecosystem service benefits have also been realized, including forest health improvements and landscape-level increases in vegetation structural diversity. Although these benefits are extensive and well documented, an important issue is whether the WMSC can become self-sustaining by the end of its initial 10-year contract length. Between 2005 and 2008, as many as 15 known wood products firms purchased wood fiber from WMSC activities. These have included a wood pellet facility, wood energy electrical facility, and several small lumber and log home manufacturers. However, a cornerstone of many successful wood products clusters – a production sawmill – has been conspicuously absent from this part of Arizona since the recent closure of a nearby lumber mill. In this research synthesis, we examine biomass utilizations activities and benefits of the WMSC for the first 5-year period while looking forward to potential opportunities for the next 5 years.

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS VS. FOREST CARBON SEQUESTRATION — IS SITKA, ALASKA, CARBON NEUTRAL?

Nicholls, D.L.*(1), Patterson, T.M. (2)

(1) Forest Products Technologist, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station Alaska Wood Utilization Research and Development Center, 204 Siginaka Way, Sitka, AK 99835 dlnicholls@fs.fed.us, (2) Research Economist, Alaska Wood Utilization Research and Development Center, 204 Siginaka Way Sitka, AK 99835-7316 tmpatterson@fs.fed.us

We evaluated CO2 emissions from Sitka, Alaska, versus estimated carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems near Sitka. Our analysis indicates that Sitka is already a carbon-negative community even under conservative estimates of net ecosystem productivity. Further emission reductions in Sitka could be achieved through energy management practices and other community initiatives.

Sitka, Alaska, has substantial hydroelectric resources, limited driving distances, and a conservation-minded community, all suggesting strong opportunities for achieving a low community carbon footprint. This study evaluated CO2 emissions from Sitka, Alaska, and compared this to estimated carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems on Baranof Island in southeast Alaska. The goal of our research was to determine if Sitka is already a carbon-neutral community when balancing these two factors (a carbon sink and a carbon source). Our analysis consisted of two parts: estimating anthropogenic CO2emissions from Sitka, and comparing this to carbon sequestration from forests on Baranof Island, an approximate indicator of the legal boundary of City and Borough of Sitka. We found that total estimated anthropogenic emissions from Sitka are in the range of 100,00-150,000 Mg carbon per year, while carbon sequestration from forests on Baranof Island were more than 250,000 Mg  carbon per year (assuming 1Mg per hectare per year). Given that the legal boundary of Sitka also includes Kruzof Island and part of Chichigof Island, we would expect this analysis to be conservative since only forests on Baranof Island were considered in our analysis. Thus, our analysis indicates that Sitka is already a carbon-negative community and could benefit even further from reductions in anthropogenic emissions. Community energy management practices could be used to guide municipal practices, further reducing Sitka’s CO2 emissions.  A strategy based upon Socolow’s stabilization wedges could be used to help Sitka planners and community members identify key areas for reducing carbon emissions. Key wedges could include increased use of wood energy for residential heating, a phasing in of electric vehicles, and a community ethic of energy conservation practices.

TORREFIED WOOD FOR COFIRING IN PULVERIZED COAL FACILITIES — AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW

Nicholls, D.L.*(1), Zerbe, J. I. (2)

(1)  Forest Products Technologist USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station Wood Utilization Center, 204 Siginaka Way, Sitka, AK 99835 dlnicholls@fs.fed.us  (2) USDA Forest Service S&PF Technology Marketing Unit Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726-2398, 608-231-9353 jzerbe@fs.fed.us

Torrefied fuels have gained recent attention due to potential benefits versus conventional biofuels, including higher energy density, increased grindability and hardness, improved water repellency, and reduced transportation costs. Many of these advantages suggest that torrefied wood or pellets could be well suited for cofiring with coal over a wide range of cofiring rates. Torrefaction can also be applied to other biomass feedstocks (including urban wood wastes and agricultural residues), increasing the window of opportunity for these fuels. Broad-based use of torrefied wood to partially replace coal could therefore become an important element of biomass utilization in mitigating climate change. In this research, we evaluate the benefits and potential barriers for widespread adoption of torrefied biomass in cofiring applications with coal, with an emphasis on pulverized coal systems. We provide an overview of recent developments in torrefied fuels internationally, identifying firms that are involved with production, testing, and product development. We also look to Europe for success stories, lessons learned, and important trends. Lastly, we identify policies that could enhance the use of torrefied biomass for electrical and thermal energy applications.

AERIAL SURVEYS AS A MONITORING TOOL FOR DROUGHT-BARK BEETLE INTERACTIONS IN CALIFORNIA

Oblinger, B. (1), Fischer, L.* (2), Heath, Z. (3), and Moore, J.W. (4)

(1) USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 1731 Research Park Drive, Davis, CA  95616, boblinger@fs.fed.us, (2) lisafischer@fs.fed.us, (3) zheath@fs.fed.us, (4) jwmoore@fs.fed.us.

Concern over tree mortality due primarily to bark beetle attacks has been growing for various reasons throughout California and western North America. Aerial survey data collected during 2002-2009 were analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS) software to determine the number of acres with bark beetle-attributed mortality each year within specific regions of the state. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), a widely used measure of soil moisture according to temperature and precipitation observations, was employed to calculate the previous year and two to four years prior to observed mortality. Analyses of variance with F-tests and simple linear regression were used to test the relationship between acreage with bark beetle-attributed mortality and mean PDSI values from previous years within each climatic region. Trends exist between longer-term climatic conditions and observed mortality. ANOVA indicated mean PDSI values of three or four years prior to observing mortality did have an effect (values of p < 0.10) on the number of acres with bark beetle-attributed mortality in multiple climatic regions investigated. Within the same regions where a trend was detected, more acres with mortality were typically found during periods of unusually warm and/or dry conditions. Results provide information that could be useful when determining which factors impact the risk of tree mortality due to bark beetles at the landscape scale within portions of the state.

ENHANCING FIRE SCIENCE EXCHANGE: THE JOINT FIRE SCIENCE PROGRAM’S NATIONAL NETWORK OF KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE CONSORTIA

Peppin, D.L. *

Southwest Fire Science Consortium Coordinator, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, 200 E. Pine Knoll, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, donna.peppin@nau.edu

The Joint Fire Science Program is developing a national network of knowledge exchange consortia comprised of interested management and science stakeholders working together to tailor and actively demonstrate existing fire science information to benefit management. This national collaborative fire science delivery network acts to accelerate the awareness, understanding, and adoption of wildland fire science information by federal, tribal, state, local, and private stakeholders within ecologically similar regions. This poster describes the background, vision, and goal behind the network, provides an overview of existing regional consortia, and illustrates examples of the types of activities and services the consortia provide.

THE SOUTHWEST FIRE SCIENCE CONSORTIUM: A NEW OPPORTUNITY IN FIRE SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT

Peppin, D.L.* (1), Thode, A.E. (2), Hunter, M.E. (3), Fulé, P.Z. (4), Evans, A. (5), Iniguez, J.M. (6), Falk, D.A. (7)

(1) Southwest Fire Science Consortium Coordinator, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, 200 E. Pine Knoll, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, donna.peppin@nau.edu, (2) Assistant Professor, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, 200 E. Pine Knoll, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, andi.thode@nau.edu, (3)  Assistant Research Professor, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, 200 E. Pine Knoll, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, molly.hunter@nau.edu, (4) Professor, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, 200 E. Pine Knoll, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, pete.fule@nau.edu, (5) Research Director, The Forest Guild, P.O. Box 519, Santa Fe, NM 87504, zander@forestguild.org, (6) Research Ecologist, USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, jiniguez@fs.fed.us, (7) Associate Professor, University of Arizona, Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, School of Natural Resources, 325 Biosciences East, Tucson, AZ 85721, dafalk@email.arizona.edu

The Southwest Fire Science Consortium is a part of the Joint Fire Science Program’s national fire science delivery network which acts to accelerate the awareness, understanding, and adoption of wildland fire science information by federal, tribal, state, local, and private stakeholders within ecologically similar regions. The Consortium is a way for managers, scientists, and policymakers to interact and share science in ways that can effectively move new information to management practices. The Southwest is one of the most fire-dominated regions of the United States, but limited in terms of regional organizations focused on fire research and information dissemination. In the Southwest, there are many localized efforts to develop scientific information and to disseminate that to practitioners on the ground, but these initiatives are often not well coordinated or aware of all the information and resources that are available. The purpose of the Consortium is to help bring these parallel efforts together to be more efficient and inclusive. We plan to encourage the exchange of knowledge in fire science though sponsoring a series of webinars, workshops, field trips, working papers, videos, and newsletters highlighting important information in fire science and management. Our regional Southwest Fire Science Consortium is built around four key questions: (1) What do people need to know? (2) What information is already known? (3) What are the key information gaps between what we need to know and what is already known? (4) How should information be communicated? This poster describes our regional consortia and the types of activities and services we provide.

THE KAMLOOPS FUTURE FOREST STRATEGY: A COLLABORATIVE APPROACH

Perez, D.M. (1), Bancroft, B. (2), Brown, C (2), Cohen, S. (1), Gerzon, M. (1), Kremsater, L. (2), Nelson, H.* (1), Nitschke, C. (1), Pearce, C. (2), Seely, B. (1), Welham, C. (1), and Zielke, K. (1)

(1) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada. dperez@interchange.ubc.ca, scohen@forestry.ubc.ca, mgerzon@interchange.ubc.ca, harry.nelson@ubc.ca*, nitschke@interchange.ubc.ca, brad.seely@ubc.ca, clive.welham@ubc.ca (2) Symmetree Consulting Inc., Vancouver, BC, Canada, bryceb@telus.net, cbrown@forsite.ca, lkrem@shaw.ca, cindypearce@telus.net, kzielke@telus.net

The Kamloops Future Forest Strategy II (K2) is a Future Forest Ecosystem Scientific Council (FFESC) funded project that seeks to inform practitioners and decision makers facing increasingly complex questions with respect to forest management under climate change in British Columbia (BC, Canada). The project, an extension of the Kamloops Future Forest Strategy I (K1), aims to understand the impacts of plausible climate change scenarios on the ecosystems, forest conditions, and values under the current forest management regime in the Kamloops Timber Supply Area (2.8 million hectares) in the Southern Interior of BC. In addition, the influence of several potential adaptive strategies is being explored to better inform decisions people are considering with respect to climate change adaptation in forest management in BC.

K2 advances the expert opinion-based K1 vulnerability analysis by quantifying the sensitivities and vulnerabilities through meta-model forecasting with a comprehensive linkage to the best available information and clearly defined assumptions where such information is lacking. K2 also expands the K1 assessment by evaluating potential solutions to high-priority strategic forest management questions and challenges within the range of the anticipated effects of climate change and linking to rural community climate change challenges. Fundamental to K2 is a collaborative approach to model-based learning that accounts for uncertainties in the impact and outcome of climate change and builds on the relationships and shared understanding established in K1. 

Our long-term research interest is in analyzing natural and environmental resource policy with an emphasis on forestry and in developing new policy options that can help enhance the long run sustainability of Canadian forests and the communities and businesses that rely upon them. Two forces are at work that expose the inadequacies of current polices and institutional arrangements. The forest sector itself is undergoing a structural transformation as the industry has to adapt to change in new markets; at the same time, in an increasing emphasis on the public demands for forests, underscored by longer-term concerns on climate change and what values those forests will be able to provide in the future. This is part of a broader environmental challenge facing Canadians today: how to meet the challenges raised by growing demand for resources and land.

FORECASTING PINYON PINE VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE USING AVAILABLE SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

Peterman, W. (1), Bachelet, D., (2), Bennett, K.A.* (3)

(1) Soil Scientist, Conservation Biology Institute, 136 SW Washington Ave, # 202, Corvallis, OR 97333-4875, wendy@consbio.org, (2) Senior Climate Scientist, Conservation Biology Institute,136 SW Washington Ave. # 202, Corvallis, OR 97333-4875, bachelet@fsl.orst.edu, (3) Regional Soil Program Leader, USFS Pacific Northwest Region, 333 SW First Avenue, Portland OR 97204

Forest mortality due to climate change is occurring all over the world. Climate change leads to changes in insect populations, fire regimes, and water stress. Soil characteristics govern the acceptance, storage, and release of precipitation and groundwater, which in turn determines the supply of plant-available water. Examining soil characteristics can give scientists and managers the tools they need to predict where trees will be most vulnerable to water stress during periods of prolonged drought or drier climates. The pinyon pine example presented here looks at the connections between four major soil characteristics (calcium carbonate accumulations, soil particle size, soil moisture regime, and soil order) and the pinyon pine mortality of 2000 to 2007 in the southwestern United States. A forecast map of pinyon vulnerability to drought is created based on these connections. This can help managers visualize where insect outbreaks, carbon release, and crown fires are most likely to occur as precipitation decreases in this region.

THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON PONDEROSA PINE REGENERATION ON THE COCONINO NATIONAL FOREST, ARIZONA

Puhlick, J.J.* (1), Laughlin, D.C. (2), Moore, M.M. (3)

(1) Graduate Research Assistant, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, P.O. Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, Joshua.Puhlick@nau.edu, (2) Assistant Research Professor, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, P.O. Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, Daniel.Laughlin@nau.edu, (3) Professor, Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, P.O. Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, Margaret.Moore@nau.edu

Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of climate on ponderosa pine seedling densities on the Coconino National Forest in northern Arizona. Climate had a strong direct effect and cascading effects on ponderosa pine regeneration through its influence on site productivity and plant associations.

How are the effects of climate on ponderosa pine seedling density propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, the forest understory, and disturbance history? We used structural equation modeling to gain insight into the relative importance of multiple factors and complex interactions affecting ponderosa pine regeneration on the Coconino National Forest in northern Arizona. We sampled 28 stands on basalt and limestone parent materials in the ponderosa pine forest type. We found that ponderosa pine seedling density was highest where (1) mean annual precipitation was highest, (2) percent clay was lowest, (3) screwleaf muhly frequency was highest, (4) pH was lowest, and (5) seed tree presence was highest. Precipitation and percent clay had indirect effects of pine seedling density mediated through site index and screwleaf muhly frequency. Mean annual temperature did not explain unique variation in pine seedling density in the presence of precipitation. This implies that temperature has less of an effect on pine seedling density at the National Forest scale. Our analysis highlights the cascading effects of precipitation on ponderosa pine regeneration through its influence on site productivity and plant associations. Our data also suggest that drier climate would lead to lower ponderosa pine regeneration densities.

CLIMATE-SENSITIVE GROWTH MODELS FOR SIX INTERIOR CALIFORNIA CONIFER SPECIES

Robards, T.A.* (1), Battles, J.J. (2), Biging, G.S. (3), Ritchie, M.W. (4)

(1) Senior Scientist, Spatial Informatics Group, LLC, 3248 Northampton Ct., Pleasanton, CA 94588, trobards@sig-gis.com, (2) Professor and Chair, Ecosystem Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall #3114, Berkeley, CA 94720, jbattles@berkeley.edu, (3) Professor, Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, biging@berkeley.edu, (4) Mathematical Statistician, USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 3644 Avtech Parkway, Redding, CA 96002, mritchie@fs.fed.us

Individual tree diameter and height growth models were developed using traditional empirical variables related to tree size, crown, and density. Topography and climate were also incorporated as independent variables. These models were incorporated into the Western Sierra Nevada variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS).

Incorporating climatic and topographic variables into a traditional empirical forest growth model structure was hypothesized to improve long-term model behavior in the context of climate change and variability. Tree growth data were assembled from four completed research projects across the interior of northern California. Combined with historic monthly climate data, the tree growth data were used in mixed effects linear regression models of tree diameter and height growth for six conifer species. Evaluations of the models appeared reasonable in both theoretical behavior and prediction using independent data. Downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) climate projections for California were used to examine forest growth to 2099. An elevational east-west transect north of Lake Tahoe was used. Existing mature stands and young plantations were simulated. Forest productivity increased in general, up to 15% for plantations. The use of existing tree growth and climate data combined with the latest biometrical knowledge was shown to provide a reasonable next step in improving forestry and ecosystem planning in the context of climate change and adaptation.

DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR ECOLOGICAL FORESTRY AND CARBON MANAGEMENT IN LONGLEAF PINE

Samuelson, L.J.* (1), Martin, T.A. (2), Johnsen, K.H. (3), Cropper, W.P. (4), Gonzalez-Benecke, C.A. (5), Butnor, J.R. (6)

(1) Professor and Director, Center for Longleaf Pine Ecosystems, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, samuelj@auburn.edu, (2) Professor and Director, University of Florida Carbon Resources Science Center, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, tamartin@ufl.edu, (3) Project Leader, USDA Forest Service, 3041 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27712, kjohnsen@fs.fed.us, (4) Associate Professor, University of Florida, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, wcropper@ufl.edu, (5) Post-Doctoral Research Associate, University of Florida, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, cgonzabe@ufl.edu, (6) Plant Physiologist, USDA Forest Service, 705 Spear Street, South Burlington, VT 05430, jbutnor@fs.fed.us

Longleaf pine ecosystems offer excellent opportunities to sequester carbon and mitigate CO2 emissions, primarily because longleaf pine is a long-lived tree species and renewed focus on restoration and protection of longleaf pine ecosystems for threatened and endangered species. To sustainably manage longleaf pine for multiple ecosystem services requires modeling tools and basic information at the ecosystem level on how restoration and management practices, in particular prescribed fire, impact carbon pools over time and under a range of soils and stand structures. We are conducting a large cooperative project funded by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program to study carbon sequestration in longleaf pine ecosystems. The objectives of this project are to (1) characterize and model the forest carbon cycle of longleaf pine ecosystems based on measurements on three U.S. Department of Defense installations across the historical range of the species, (2) elucidate sources and sinks of carbon and changes through time in managed and natural successional pathways, (3) develop models to determine the contribution of ecologically based forest management to an installation’s carbon footprint and compare the influence of land use changes on carbon and other ecosystem services, and (4) identify silvicultural practices that improve life-cycle carbon management. We will develop and link two longleaf pine forest carbon cycle models: an even-aged model that will simulate scenarios for young (0-50 years) planted longleaf pine stands managed for transition toward uneven-aged structures with silvicultural tools such as thinning and prescribed fire and a single-tree-based model, which will enable simulation of older (40 to >200 years) longleaf pine stands managed with silvicultural tools such as single tree or group selection harvests and prescribed fire. To support calibration and validation of the models, researchers will quantify carbon in aboveground and belowground biomass, shrubs, the herbaceous layer, soils, litter, and detritus in stands covering the native range of longleaf pine on three DoD installations – Camp Lejeune, North Carolina; Fort Benning, Georgia; and Fort Polk, Louisiana – representing both coastal and inland physiographies, different herbaceous layer composition, and in stands with a range of management histories and management objectives.

SCIENCE DELIVERY THROUGH THE CLIMATE CHANGE RESOURCE CENTER

Schmitt, K.M.* (1), Alm, A. (2), Furniss, M.J. (3), Guntle, J. (4), Hines, S.J. (5), Spriggs, P.B. (6), Swanston, C.W. (7), Worley-Firley, S.L. (8)

(1) Climate Change Outreach Specialist, Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, kschmitt02@fs.fed.us, (2) Communications Consultant, Andrew Alm Consulting, 2051 Parton Lane, Arcata, CA 95521, andy@almlet.net, (3) Climate Change Resource Center Co-chair and Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, 1700 Bayview Dr., Arcata, CA 95521, mfurniss@fs.fed.us, (4) Information Technology Specialist, USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, 333 SW First Avenue, Portland, OR 97204, jguntle@fs.fed.us, (5) Ecosystem Services Specialist, USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry and Northern Research Station, 11 Campus Blvd. Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073, shines@fs.fed.us, (6) Communications Director, Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, 200 Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804, pspriggs@fs.fed.us, (7) Climate Change Resource Center Co-chair  and Director of the Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science, 410 MacInnes Dr., Houghton, MI 49931, cswanston@fs.fed.us, (8) Biological Science Information Specialist, Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, 200 Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804, sworleyfirley@fs.fed.us

The Climate Change Resource Center (CCRC) is a science-delivery team working to facilitate better communication between researchers and forest managers on the issue of climate change. Ongoing initiatives include the development of video courses targeted to user needs, guidance on software tools, and original peer-reviewed material created for land managers.

The science of climate change and its impacts is rapidly evolving, generating a flood of new and often conflicting information. Land managers and woodland owners have the daunting task of finding and interpreting those resources that best suit their needs and that are scientifically credible. Regional specificity, highly varied land-management contexts, inherent uncertainties, and the complex interactions between ecosystem components add to the challenge. The Climate Change Resource Center (CCRC) is a science-delivery team working to facilitate better communication and interaction between researchers and forest managers about climate change and its effects on natural resources and people. The CCRC website (http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/) reflects our efforts to create a multi-pronged approach to science delivery that addresses the challenge of connecting land managers with a carefully selected set of timely, relevant, and credible information that they can use in their work. Recent initiatives include:

• Video-based courseware: Providing access to recent scientific presentations by building a library of select video lectures and short courses relevant to land managers. An accessible presentation interface provides interaction to facilitate self-paced remote learning that is inexpensive and can be accommodated by busy professionals.

• Tools: Connecting users with software tools that can help them make management decisions, and providing impartial assessments and guidance on the uses and limitations of each tool.

• Topic pages: Recruiting teams of experienced scientists to write short, peer-reviewed articles on how climate change interacts with natural resource topics in their area of expertise and practice. Information is structured to give primary audiences an overview of the most relevant, current science on specific issues while providing recommended resources to explore the subject in more depth. Our method of science delivery recognizes that land managers are a diverse community that have different information needs and learning approaches. Continued innovation in ways of presenting information will help ensure that land management decisions are well informed by current and credible scientific information.   

CLIMATE CHANGE HANDBOOK: A CITIZEN'S GUIDE TO THOUGHTFUL ACTION

Simon-Brown, V.M.*

Sustainable Living Specialist, Oregon State University, College of Forestry, 316 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, viviane.simon-brown@oregonstate.edu

Climate change is real. Average American households are a significant source of GHG emissions, as well as the ultimate end-users of most energy production. Therefore citizens have the potential to make a difference now and for future generations. This handbook provides climate science basics, including the historical changes in GHG releases, the roles that lifestyle and population play in the climate scenario, the significance of carbon footprints, and an overview of the current climate situation. A detailed carbon counter is attached to the guide. The guide then illustrates the difference between adaptation (taking steps to live with the changes) and mitigation (taking steps to slow the rate of change.) Adaptation examples include food, water, shelter, transportation, recreation, and careers. Mitigation focuses on effectively engaging with local government, through serving on advisory boards, communicating with public officials, and leading community climate change actions. One useful way to mitigate climate change is through citizen science efforts. Citizen scientists help professional scientists better understand the impact of the rate of change on plants and animals, which is crucial for preserving species, and for assessing potential insect and disease outbreaks in agriculture, natural resources, and public health. Taking personal action is a key element of this handbook. Citizens are challenged to consume 20% fewer resources, to bring American consumption levels down to Western European levels. Readers are given 10 practical steps to make the changes, including a Jumpstart list to complete in a single weekend. The Resources section provides additional information, and readers are encouraged to contact the authors for further questions.

THE SOUTHWEST CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE: BUILDING RESILIENCE IN CHANGING LANDSCAPES

Smith, E.B.* (1), Robles, M. (2), McCarthy, P.D. (3), Neely, B. (4), Degiorgio, J. (5), Bradley, A. (6)

(1) Forest Conservation and Restoration Program Manager, The Nature Conservancy in Arizona, 114 N. San Francisco St., Ste. 205, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, esmith@tnc.org, (2) Conservation Science Specialist, The Nature Conservancy in Arizona, 1510 E. Ft. Lowell, Tucson, AZ  85719, mrobles@tnc.org, (3) Director of Conservation Programs, The Nature Conservancy in New Mexico, 212 E. Marcy St., Ste. 200, Santa Fe, NM 87501, pmccarthy@tnc.org (4) Senior Conservation Planner, The Nature Conservancy in Colorado, 2424 Spruce St., Boulder, CO 80302, bneeley@tnc.org, (5)  Northern Mountains Regional Director, The Nature Conservancy in Utah, 559 East South Temple, Salt Lake City, UT 84102, jdegiorgio@tnc.org, (6) Fire and Forests Program Manager, The Nature Conservancy in New Mexico, 212 E. Marcy St., Ste. 200, Santa Fe, NM 87501, abradley@tnc.org

In collaboration with academic and public agency partners, The Nature Conservancy initiated the Southwest Climate Change Initiative in 2008 to develop information about climate change adaptation with natural resource managers in the Southwest. From a regional climate change assessment, we found that 80% of the habitats and 70% of the watersheds in the Southwest have warmed significantly in the last 55 years, and that scientists have already observed multiple changes in ecological, hydrological, and species processes that are directly associated with this warming. We also held a series of workshops across the Southwest where managers, planners, conservation practitioners, and scientists identified strategies to address climate change impacts. These workshops were conducted in four landscapes: the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, the Gunnison Basin in Colorado, the Four Forest Restoration Initiative area in Arizona, and the Bear River Basin in Utah. From these workshops, we found that when natural resource managers are provided with information about current and projected climate change, they can begin the process of assessing potential impacts of a changing climate and adapting their planning and management activities to address these impacts. Managers found that the current suite of tools used to restore and maintain land and water health are well suited to adapt to climate change, but that the pace, scale, and priority of such activities may need to be altered. They also found that the most prudent response to shifting species distributions and widespread ecological change is for managers to work collaboratively across jurisdictional boundaries, across landscapes and regions, to ensure that natural resource objectives can be met. We have many of the tools we need to get started on building resilience and reducing adverse effects to water supplies, habitats, and species. However, as uncertainty and change become more commonplace, we need to track the effects of management and experimental approaches to better evaluate impacts and inform decisions about strategic investment.

ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE DIVERSITY AND SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN ARIZONA’S SKY ISLANDS

Stock, S.P.* (1), Hobaica, K.H. (2)

Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Forbes Bldg., Room 410, 1140 E. South Campus Dr., Tucson, AZ 85721-0036, spstock@email.arizona.edu

Nematodes can be used as model organisms and bioindicators to study environmental changes in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Moreover, nematodes play key role in N and C cycling. This project focuses on insect-parasitic nematode diversity of southern Arizona’s oak woodlands. Oak diversity in Arizona is vast but with a scattered distribution in the different mountain ranges. This particular distribution of oak woodlands in the "sky islands” of southeastern Arizona, provides an interesting framework to document the diversity and study the population structure of entomopathogenic nematodes associated to these habitats. In this study, an integrated approach, combining both traditional (morphological) and molecular methods, is proposed for examining the species diversity of insect-pathogenic nematodes. In addition to developing a deeper understanding of the biology and ecology of insect parasitic nematodes, the present study also provides an important tool for the identification of species and isolates for registration, quarantine, and proprietary protection purposes. We envision these results will be useful to other researchers interested in conservation of biotic diversity and in applying this knowledge to non-chemical and non-toxic pest control programs, therefore protecting and improving the quality of our environment.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WILDLIFE: IMPACTS, UNCERTAINTIES, AND ADAPTATIONS

Sullivan, K.L.* (1), Allred, S.R. (2), Schneider, R,L. (3), Curtis, P.D. (4)  

(1) Wildlife Extension Associate, Cornell University Dept. of Natural Resources, 109 Fernow Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, kls20@cornell.edu, (2) Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Cornell University Department of Natural Resources, 122C Fernow Hall, Ithaca, NY, 14853, srb237@cornell.edu, (3) Associate Professor and Department Extension Leader,  Cornell University Department of Natural Resources, 112 Fernow Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, rls11@cornell.edu, (4) Associate Professor and Extension Wildlife Specialist, Cornell University Department of Natural Resources, 114 Fernow Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, pdc1@cornell.edu

In New York State, substantial changes in climate have already taken place, with implications for wildlife distribution, health, and abundance. In the last 30 years, average annual temperature has increased by 1⁰ Celsius, and winter temperatures have warmed even faster. Precipitation and average annual temperature are projected to increase further. Much of the additional winter precipitation may occur as rainfall rather than snow. Summer precipitation may decline, and concurrent increases in temperature will result in more frequent or prolonged droughts. Winter snow cover has decreased, and additional snow cover loss will profoundly affect specialized, cold-adapted species (e.g., ruffed grouse and moose). Also, generalists such as deer may survive and compete better under milder winter conditions. Already, these climate changes have affected the distribution and abundance of wildlife species in New York State and elsewhere. For example, many species of migratory birds are arriving significantly earlier in the spring. Several species of frogs now initiate breeding calls 10 to 13 days earlier than a century ago. There is evidence that some small mammal species may be extending their ranges further northward. Currently, cold temperatures serve as a barrier limiting the spread of insect-borne diseases, (e.g., epizootic hemorraghic disease), which affect white-tailed deer and other ungulates. Wildlife and other natural resource professionals face many uncertainties in planning to meet new challenges of climate change. We have developed a comprehensive extension program to help them address anticipated change. We conducted a survey of wildlife conservation and management professionals to determine which wildlife species, groups, and habitats were most at risk from climate change; which anticipated climate change impacts would most affect New York species; what potential adaptations might reduce anticipated impacts on wildlife and fisheries resources; and what resources would be useful for addressing these impacts. We also engaged with a NYSERDA-funded project to identify climate change vulnerabilities and adaptations for wildlife in New York and were actively involved in writing the “Ecosystems” chapter of the resulting “ClimAid” report. Finally, we developed extension presentations and other educational materials, which served as the basis for workshops and webinars engaging 790 educators and natural resource professionals.

WILL BLACK OAK SURVIVE CLIMATE CHANGE IN MIDWESTERN AMERICAN?

Theuri, J.T.*

Agriculture & Natural Resources Educator, University of Illinois, Kankakee County Extension Unit, 1650 Commerce Dr., Bourbonnais, IL 60914, jtheu50@illinois.edu

Black oak (Quercus velutina Lam., Family Fagaceae) is a common, medium-sized to large oak of the eastern and midwestern United States. Although it grows best on moist, rich, well-drained soils, it is often found on poor, dry, sandy soils where it grows for up to 200 years. Black oak trees provide shelter to birds, and acorns are a source of diet for wildlife (bears, squirrels, deer, and woodpeckers). They also provide timber. Generally, oaks have declined in numbers through human removal for agriculture and other development, and through interference with natural fires that facilitate their survival advantage. Black oaks are poor competitors for resources. To conserve and preserve black oaks, various institutions are proactive. Following a change in weather, the imminent climate (longer growing seasons, increased temperatures), modeling analysis indicates that in the next 100 years, new areas will open up that will support growth or a resurgence of black oaks, assuming that other natural or human factors will not be limiting. On the other hand, in other areas where climate change will bring drought and/or floods, survival of oaks will be jeopardized.

COMMUNITY REFORESTATION AS POST-DISASTER RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE

Tidball, K.G.*

Extension Associate and Associate Director, Civic Ecology Lab, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, 101A Rice Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, kgtidball@cornell.edu

How might trees and the urban forest shape social-ecological system (SES) resilience before and following disaster in cities? In what ways does active engagement of people with trees through involvement in an "Urban Forestry Community of Practice" involved in tree planting, monitoring tree health, and caring for damaged trees, contribute to SES resilience to disasters in cities? This contribution addresses these questions by exploring the hypotheses that in urban post-disaster and post-conflict contexts, community-based natural resources management, such as “greening” or “urban community forestry,” confers resilience across multiple scales before a catastrophic event, and through demonstrating resistance and reactivating recovery feedbacks, indicates resilience after a catastrophic event. The study, conducted after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans (NOLA) suggests that: (1) trees as symbols and sources of ecosystem services shaped resilience before and following disaster in NOLA; (2) the active engagement of citizens with trees played a crucial, yet often unrecognized, role across multiple scales in recovery and resilience in post-Katrina NOLA; and (3) that this emergent group of ordinary people engaged in civic ecology practices such as tree planting, monitoring tree health, and caring for damaged trees, can be understood as an Urban Forestry Community of Practice, an important social mechanism linked to resilience of the NOLA SES post-Katrina. Implications of these suggested conclusions for policymakers and planners include the following: (1) Natural capital restoration, linked to social capital and sense of place, should be accounted for and budgeted for by institutions responding to disaster or conflict; (2) To understand multiple capitals, institutions should utilize participatory planning and other stake-holder based approaches; (3) Stake-holder approaches, and the results they yield, are implicated in many important ways in managing for SES resilience.

TEMPLATE FOR ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS: APPLICATIONS IN FOREST PLAN REVISION ON THE GEORGE WASHINGTON NATIONAL FOREST

Treasure, E.A.* (1), McNulty, S.G. (2), Liggett, C. (3), Moore Myers, J.A. (4), Herring, R.L. (5), Meriwether, D. (6), Arndt, P. (7), Landgraf, K. (8)

(1) Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, USDA Forest Service, 920 Main Campus Drive, Suite 300, Raleigh, NC 27606, etreasure@fs.fed.us, (2) Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, USDA Forest Service, 920 Main Campus Drive, Suite 300, Raleigh, NC 27606, smcnulty@fs.fed.us, (3) Southern Region Planning, USDA Forest Service, 1720 Peachtree Rd., NW,  Suite 811N, Atlanta, GA  30309, cliggett@fs.fed.us, (4) Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, USDA Forest Service, 920 Main Campus Drive, Suite 300, Raleigh, NC 27606, jmooremyers@fs.fed.us, (5) Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center, USDA Forest Service, 920 Main Campus Drive, Suite 300, Raleigh, NC 27606, rherring@fs.fed.us, (6) Southern Region Planning, USDA Forest Service, 1720 Peachtree Rd., NW, Suite 811N, Atlanta, GA  30309, dmeriwether@fs.fed.us, (7) Southern Region Planning, USDA Forest Service, 1720 Peachtree Rd., NW, Suite 811N,  Atlanta, GA  30309,  parndt@fs.fed.us, (8) Planning & Forest Ecology Group,  George Washington & Jefferson National Forests, USDA Forest Serivce, 5162 Valleypointe Parkway, Roanoke, VA 24019

The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO) is a Web-based tool adopted by the Southern Region of the U.S. Forest Service to assist land managers and planners with evaluation of climate change implications for sustainable forest management.

TACCIMO is an adaptive information framework that provides a science-management integration pathway that is catered and responsive to the needs of forest planners and managers.  A searchable repository of direct impacts and management options derived from the body of peer-reviewed literature is accessible through a text-based Web application. A geospatial mapping application provides national extent downscaled climate data and other spatially explicit models relevant to evaluating climate change impacts on forests (e.g., Water Supply Stress Index). Report generators in both applications assist users in considering the range of likely future climate conditions and impacts/management options at multiple scales. For U.S. Forest Service users, direct impacts and management options can be readily linked with management conditions and capabilities as apparent in National Forest land and resource management plans.  The TACCIMO concept and products will be described, with emphasis on application of TACCIMO during the George Washington National Forest plan revision.

BUILDING STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN EXTENSION AND RESEARCHER ORGANIZATIONS TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE

Withrow-Robinson, B.A.* (1), Schulze, M.D. (2), Brodeur, J.M. (3), Crimmins, M.A. (4)

(1)  Forestry and Natural Resources Extension Educator, Oregon State University, Marion, Polk, and Yamhill Counties, 2050 Lafayette Ave., NE, McMinnville, OR 97128 brad.w-r@oregonstate.edu, (2)  H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest Director, Oregon State University, P.O. Box 300, Blue River, OR 97413, Mark.schulze@oregonstate.edu,  (3) Communications and Outreach Specialist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole Sea Grant, 193 Oyster Pond Rd., Woods Hole, MA 02543, jbrodeur@whoi.edu, (4) Climate Science Extension Specialist, University of Arizona, Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 210038, Tucson, AZ 85721, Crimmins@cals.arizona.edu

Climate change, among other things, will test the ability of the Cooperative Extension Service and other organizations to remain effective, even relevant in a changing world.  Educators, researchers, and natural resource managers all must adapt, if not reinvent themselves and their organizations, to ensure that their work brings value to society. Stronger, more effective communication between researchers, educators, and forest landowners and managers will likely be key to future success in adapting to climate change. We see a need for Extension and research organizations that are studying the process and impacts of climate change to begin to engage and collaborate more effectively around research and education because:

•              Extension needs a fresh flow of legitimate science-based information to fulfill its land-grant mission of interpreting and applying science to local forest management issues.

•              Researchers need to produce credible work that leads to practical impacts.

•              Forest owners and managers need relevant information, best derived from research they help define.

As an example, we identify an opportunity and propose steps to form strategic partnerships within two important national programs: the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program and the Cooperative Extension Service.  Both are national entities, composed of locally based and locally oriented units with very different but highly complementary missions and capabilities. One leads in sophisticated basic biophysical and social research but faces challenges in keeping the research relevant and translating it into broader impacts. The other has strengths in public education and engagement, with unmatched integration into natural resource-based communities, but needs to connect those communities to legitimate science. This partnership could deliver highly credible and relevant information to the country’s private forest landowners, managers, and their advisors, an overlooked group of decision makers who directly manage a significant portion (63%) of the nation’s forest lands. The decisions they make each day affect our ability to mitigate or adapt to climate change.

EXTENSION AND RESEARCH COLLEAGUES IDENTIFY COMMON MISSION AND COLLABORATIVE ACTIONS THROUGH CLIMATE CHANGE STUDY RETREAT

Withrow-Robinson, B.A.* (1), Schulze, M.D. (2), Ahrens, G.R. (3), Grotta, A. (4)

(1)  Forestry and Natural Resources Extension Educator, Oregon State University, Marion, Polk, and Yamhill Counties, 2050 Lafayette Ave., NE, McMinnville, OR 97128, brad.w-r@oregonstate.edu,  (2)  H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest Director, Oregon State University, P.O. Box 300, Blue River, OR 97413, Mark.schulze@oregonstate.edu,  (3) Forestry and Natural Resources Extension Faculty, Oregon State University, Clatsop and Tillamook Counties, 2001 Marine Dr., Rm. 210, Astoria, OR 97103, glenn.ahrens@oregonstate.edu, (4) Assistant Professor and Extension Forester,  Oregon State University, Columbia and Washington Counties, 505 N. Columbia River Hwy, St. Helens, OR 97051, amy.grotta@oregonstate.edu

Successful Extension work requires good connections and communications between Extension, their research colleagues and clientele. Extension has a long and successful history of engaging with researchers and their work across the range of natural resource sciences (soils, ecology, silviculture, pathology, etc.) in order to both interpret and apply science to the problems of local forest owners and managers. Climate change and climate science bring additional stresses and new problems, which demands new types of information to help natural resource-based communities mitigate or adapt to climate change. To remain effective in its role of linking natural resource managers and other citizens to the science they use, Extension needs to engage a new group of scientists who are not typically involved with Extension clientele or local problem-solving education but whose insights will be increasingly relevant to natural resource managers in a changing world. Likewise, researchers are increasingly aware of the need for effective engagement with the public on issues related to climate change in order to keep the scope and nature of their inquiry appropriate and relevant. Extension and research colleagues at Oregon State University (OSU) have begun that engagement process. In 2010, the OSU Forestry and Natural Resources Extension program and the H.J. Andrews Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program hosted a week-long climate change study retreat. The H.J. Andrews LTER is a joint OSU and U.S. Forest Service project and a leading force in understanding the impacts of climate change in forest ecosystems. The retreat was designed to build connections between the LTER science and Extension education teams and lead to new and collaborative approaches to climate change education. We identified over a dozen activities to pursue together.  These range from short-term products communicating key science findings to innovative long-term efforts to engage landowners in citizen science, thereby enriching both Extension and research programs in the near term while creating working relationships that should lead to greater communications in the future.

IMPACT EVALUATION OF THE CARBON CREDIT PROGRAM IN MINNESOTA

Zamora, D.S. (1), Wyatt, G. (2), Current, D. (3)

(1) Extension Educator/Associate Extension Professor, University of Minnesota Extension, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N, St. Paul, MN 55108, zamor015@umn.edu, (2) Extension Educator/Professor, University of Minnesota Extension, Extension Regional Office, Mankato, 1961 Premier Drive, Suite 110, Mankato, MN  56001-5901; wyatt@umn.edu; (3) Program Director, Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources Management (CINRAM), University of Minnesota, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N, St. Paul, MN 55108, curre002@umn.edu

Fossil fuel emissions continue to build up greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere.  Carbon dioxide (CO2), a GHG, is considered as a major factor causing global climate change. Carbon sequestration (extracting and storing carbon from the atmosphere) has been proposed as one of the means among many to help mitigate climate change. Growing plants extract CO2 from the atmosphere, convert it to biomass, and give off oxygen (O2). New plantings provide a net gain in carbon sequestered. A managed forest both maintains a stock of carbon and continuously sequesters more carbon. Since trees sequester carbon over a relatively long time period, the scientific community recognizes the role of forest or vegetation in mitigating climate change. Farmers and landowners who employ practices that sequester carbon from the atmosphere may be eligible for carbon credit payments. In recent years, a voluntary market for carbon credit trading existed in the United States. The carbon credit program aims to 1) prevent or reduce carbon emissions produced by human activities from reaching the atmosphere, and 2) remove carbon from the atmosphere by planting and securely storing it in tree biomass and the soil. Hence, it provides payment to landowners implementing carbon sequestration practices. Since carbon credit trading began, the University of Minnesota Extension has provided educational workshops and materials to forest landowners and agricultural producers in Minnesota. Such educational programs created behavior change to landowners. Among the impacts of the program include an enrollment of at least 300 Minnesota landowners, increases in the number of forest stewardship plans, and the enhancement of the sense of “stewardship” of the environment.

More on the National Workshop on Climate and Forests:

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This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.