Reference Guide for Mastitis-Causing Bacteria

Dairy February 26, 2014 Print Friendly and PDF

 

 

Introduction

The reference guide for mastitis-causing bacteria below was developed to provide a succinct yet comprehensive summary of the major classes of bacteria that cause mastitis in dairy cows as a rapid reference for dairy farmers and bovine practitioners. In addition, the guide denotes the environmental or contagious nature of each pathogen, its source in the cow’s surroundings, mechanisms of spread, methods of control, and treatment strategies.


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Reference guide for mastitis-causing bacteria

 


C. S. Petersson-Wolfe and J. Currin
Virginia Tech Mastitis & Immunology Laboratory & Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine
(Information obtained from NMC Laboratory Handbook on Bovine Mastitis and veterinary consultation for treatment recommendations)

Classification Bacteria Contagious or Environmental Source Spread Control Treatment*
Staphylococcus spp. Staph.
aureus
Contagious Infected udders, hands of milkers Milking time Post-dip, DCT1, segregation and cull if necessary Label recommendations for broad-spectrum antibiotics, if early lactation – 5-7 d pirlimycin, do not treat chronic infections
Coagulase (-)
staph. &
S. hyicus
Neither Skin flora & occasionally environment Infect teat canal from skin sources Post-dip, DCT Treat clinical cases (broad spectrum), DCT
Streptococcus
spp. and Enterococcus spp.
Strep.
agalactiae
Contagious Infected udders Milking time Milking time hygiene, post-dip, DCT Label recommendations for broad-spectrum antibiotics
Strep.
dysgalactiae
Contagious
and environmental
Infected udders and environment Milking time & environmental contact Milking time hygiene, pre- & post-dip, DCT, teat seal Label recommendations for broad-spectrum antibiotics
Strep. uberis Environmental Environment – early dry period New IMI2 during early dry period Milking time hygiene, pre- & post-dip, DCT, teat seal Label recommendations for broad-spectrum antibiotics and consider IMM3 therapy
4-5 d penicillin systemically (3.5 cc/100 lb body weight)**
Environmental
strep & Enterococcus
spp.
Environmental Environment Environmental contact Milking time hygiene, pre- & post-dip, DCT, teat seal
Gram negatives Escherichia
coli
Environmental Bedding, manure, soil Environmental contact Cows clean & dry, use of sand bedding, pre-dip, a J5 vaccine Do not treat local cases.
Systemic cases – 2-3 L hypertonic saline IV, followed by oral fluid therapy, NSAID*** and injectable antibiotics
Klebsiella
spp.
Environmental Organic bedding Environmental contact Avoid sawdust & recycled manure, pre-dip, J5 vaccine
Enterobacter
spp.
Environmental Bedding, manure, soil Environmental contact Cows clean & dry, use of sand bedding, pre-dip, a J5 vaccine
Serratia
spp.
Environmental Soil and plants Environmental contact Cows clean & dry, pre-dip (no chlorhexidine products) 180-300 ml hypertonic saline IMM infusion
Pseudomonas
spp.
Environmental Water & wet bedding Environmental contact No water use in parlor, no cooling ponds, sand bedding, a J5 vaccine
Proteus
spp.
Environmental Bedding, feed & water Environmental contact Not much known, use of sand bedding, a J5 vaccine
Pasteurella
spp.
Probably contagious Upper respiratory tract of mammals and birds Unknown – likely cow to cow Prevent teat injuries, remove affected cows from herd Do not respond to IMM treatment
Other Yeast &
mold
Environmental Soil, plants, water Dirty infusions Aseptic infusions No treatment
Corynebacterium bovis &
other coryneforms
Contagious Infected udders Cow to cow Post-dip Treat clinical cases and DCT
Prototheca Environmental Soil, plants, water Dirty infusions, infected udders Aseptic infusions, eliminate infected cow No treatment – cull cow
Bacillus spp. Environmental Soil, water, air Dirty infusions Aseptic infusions Broad-spectrum antibiotic
Arcanobacterium pyogenes Contagious/ Environmental Teat injuries Flies Fly control Kill affected quarter or remove from herd
Information obtained from NMC Laboratory Handbook on Bovine Mastitis and veterinary consultation for treatment recommendations).
*These are general treatment recommendations; actual recommendations may vary from herd to herd. Please consult your veterinarian.
**Extra label usage; please consult your veterinarian before starting this protocol.
***Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
1 – DCT, dry cow therapy; 2 – IMI, intramammary infection; 3 – IMM, intramammary.

Author Information

C. S. Petersson-Wolfe and J. Currin,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Selected References

National Mastitis Council. 1999. Laboratory Handbook on Bovine Mastitis. NMC Inc., Madison, Wis.

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USDA / NIFA

This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project.