Ashley Griffin, University of Kentucky
A fairly new and less painful method, freeze branding uses irons chilled in liquid nitrogen. The hair that grows back where the brand was applied has no pigment, resulting in a white brand. Therefore, when freeze branding a gray or white horse, the brand must be kept on longer to give the appearance of a hot brand.
Another type of freeze brand, called the alpha angle system, uses a horse's date of birth, breed, and registration number. This type of brand is applied on the neck or under the mane and is registered in a national data bank.